Imécourt Cavalerie

From Project WSS
Jump to navigationJump to search

Hierarchical Path: War of the Spanish Succession (Main Page) >> Armies >> French Army >> Imécourt Cavalerie

Origin and History

Trooper of Imécourt Cavalerie at the battle of Fleurus in 1690
Source: adapted from Capitaine Menuau Historique du 14ème régiment de dragons

The regiment was raised on 3 March 1672 by the Marquis de Seyssac.

In 1672, at the beginning of the Franco-Dutch War (1672-78), the regiment was at the capture of Wesel, Emmerich and Bommel. In 1673, it campaigned in Brandenburg and occupied Unna, Kamen, Altena, Soest, Coester and Bielefeld. In 1674, it took part in the battles of Sinsheim, Entzheim and Mulhouse; in 1675, in the battles of Turckheim and Altenheim; in 1677, in the sieges of Valenciennes and Cambrai; and in 1678, in the siege of Ypres and in the Battle of Saint-Denis.

On 8 August 1679, the regiment was disbanded, with the exception of its mestre de camp company.

On 20 August 1688, the regiment was re-established.

In 1689, during the Nine Years' War (1688-97), the regiment campaigned in Germany. In 1690, it campaigned on the Moselle and in Flanders, taking part in the Battle of Fleurus. In 1691, it was at the siege of Mons, before returning to the Moselle. In 1692, it took part in the capture of Namur, in the Battle of Steenkerque, and in the bombardment of Charleroi; in 1693, in the Battle of Landen and in the siege of Charleroi. It then served on the Meuse from 1694 to 1697.

At the beginning of the War of the Spanish Succession, the regiment counted 2 squadrons.

During the War of the Spanish Succession, the successive mestres de camp of the regiment were:

  • from March 1693: Henri-Daniel de Wassinghac, Chevalier d'Imécourt d'Alipon (promoted to maréchal de camp in January 1702, killed in front of Verrua on 26 December 1704)
  • from January 1702: Marquis de Montauban
  • from 1703: Chevalier de Montauban
  • from 6 October 1703: Marquis de Forbin
  • from 19 July 1708 to 7 August 1728: Nicolas-Antoine de Grouches, Marquis de Chépy


Service during the War

In 1701, the regiment served in Germany.

In February 1702, the regiment was transferred to Northern Italy. On 21 March, as part of d'Ourches' Brigade (3 sqns of Dauphin Cavalerie, 2 sqns of Melun Cavalerie, 2 sqns of Ourches Cavalerie and 2 sqns of the regiment now called Montauban), it went to San Giacomo. It served in the army of the Prince de Vaudémont, in the corps of the Lieutenant-General Comte de Bezons. In July, this army relieved Mantua. In August, the Duc de Vendôme, who had taken position at Luzzara, asked reinforcements to Vaudémont. The latter sent Vendôme 20 squadrons (including this regiment) under the command of Bezons. On 15 August, the regiment distinguished itself in the Battle of Luzzara when Bezons re-established the line after that Perche Infanterie, Sault Infanterie and the Irish regiments had been driven back. On 18 September, the regiment took its winter-quarters in Carpi.

In 1703, the Chevalier de Montauban briefly assumed command of the regiment who was transferred to the Marquis de Forbin shortly afterwards. On 19 May, the regiment was part of Anglure's Brigade (2 sqns of Esclainvilliers, 2 sqns of the regiment and 2 sqns of Bourbon) under M. de Montgon. The regiment then took part in the erection of the Lines of the Sésia and of the Agogna. In June, it fought in an engagement near Castelnuovo. By October, the regiment counted 300 men and was encamped on the Secchia as part of Albergotti's Corps, brigaded with Rennepont Cavalerie and Melun Cavalerie. It was renamed "Forbin" when a new mestre de camp assumed command. In November, the regiment was at the capture of Asti and Villanova d’Asti. It took its winter-quarters in Vigevano where it remained till next Spring.

At the end of April 1704, French troops received orders to concentrate at Casale. The regiment was brigaded with Dauphin Cavalerie (3 sqns). On 6 May, the Army passed the Po. On 7 May, it passed the Stura. General Vaubonne's rearguard was attacked and the French captured two standards. The army (including the regiment) then laid siege to Vercelli. The Duke of Savoy and Starhemberg vainly tried to relieve the place which surrendered on 20 July. The army then laid siege to Ivrea, the place surrendering on 16 September, the castle on 30 September. On 7 October, the army marched from Ivrea towards Verrua. By that time, the regiment was brigaded with Colonel-Général, Broglie and Anjou. The Siege of Verrua stagnated and winter was coming.

In 1705, the French cavalry covering the siege of Verrua was wasting away and Vendôme decided to move it away. The regiment, along with Villeroy Cavalerie, took post at Acqui. On 9 April, Verrua finally surrendered and Dauphin Dragons rejoined the regiment at Acqui. On 14 May, the Allies launched a surprise attack. The regiment was sent to Ivrea where the army deployed in order of battle. The Marquis de Forbin commanded a brigade consisting of the regiment (2 sqns), Autichamp (2 sqns) and Villeroy (2 sqns). The army then advanced on Chivas where the Duke of Savoy had entrenched his army. On 11 July, the regiment was assigned to a detachment placed under Albergotti and sent to Lombardy as reinforcement. This detachment consisted of Colonel-Général (3 sqns), Forbin (2 sqns), Grammont (3 sqns) and Du Héron Dragons (3 sqns). On 19 July, this detachment arrived at the camp of Fiesco. On 16 August, the regiment was at the Battle of Cassano but was not involved. After the victory of Cassano, the army remained in the neighbourhood of Rivolta till October. On 11 October, it marched on Crema. On 16 October, a cavalry combat took place at Montodine. Operations lasted till winter and the regiment took its winter-quarters at Ceresara only on 26 December.

In April 1706, Vendôme decided to launch an offensive. On 19 April, the regiment was at the Battle of Calcinato but does not seem to have been engaged. However, it took part in the pursuit. The army then established itself on the Adige. The regiment was part of the Mantuan Corps under M. de Médavi, brigaded with Grammont and Chartres. The Duc d'Orléans then replaced Vendôme as commander in Italy. By 19 August, it was at Cremona. On 8 September, Médavi hastened to the relief of Castiglione where he defeated the Prince of Hesse in the Battle of Castiglione. Médavi then retired to the camp of Pizzighetone where he remained till the beginning of October. On 22 October, Médavi's Corps took its winter-quarters in Lombardy. The regiment was part of the corps placed under M. de Dillon, charged to defend Brescia.

At the beginning of January 1707, Prince Eugène de Savoie launched an offensive. By that time the regiment was at Mantua. On 13 March, the Prince de Vaudémont was forced to sign a convention with Prince Eugène where he agreed that the Franco-Spanish army would evacuate Italy. By 29 March, the regiment was at Susa. It was then assigned to the defence of Dauphiné and sent to the camp of Barbentane where he remained till November.

In the Spring of 1708, Villars assumed command of the Army of Dauphiné (74 bns and 20 sqns). The regiment was posted on the Lines of Saint Maurice, facing Savoy. It is during this period that the regiment was given to a new mestre de camp and changed its name to Chépy.

In 1709, the regiment set off from its quarters at Faussigny and marched to Franche-Comté, brigaded with Harcourt Cavalerie. On 11 June, it passed the Rhine near Kehl and then marched to the camp of Altenheim. By 1 November, it was sent to Brisach but came back to Franche-Comté for its winter-quarters.

In 1710, the regiment was ordered to march to Alsace where he joined Cheladet's Brigade: Chépy (2 sqns), Dupuy (2 sqns) and Cuirassiers (2 sqns). By 16 May, it was at Kehl; at the end of July, in the Lines of Wissembourg; and by 1 October, in the Bade country. At the end of November, the regiment returned to Franche-Comté.

At the end of March 1711, the regiment returned to Alsace, in the Lines of Ettlingen. It then went to Kehl. In November, it took its winter-quarters in Lorraine.

In April 1712, the regiment joined the Army of Flanders. On 24 July, it was probably present at the Battle of Denain. At the end of July, it was at Condé, in Frézin's Brigade: Frézin (2 sqns) and Chépy (2 sqns). It then took part in the Siege of Le Quesnoy.

In 1713, the regiment returned to the Rhine and took part in the sieges of Landau and Freiburg.

In 1714, the regiment was at the camp of the Saône.

Uniform

Our only source is Lemau de la Jaisse who in 1721 mentioned that the uniform consisted of a white coat with red cuffs.

Troopers

Uniform in 1721- Copyright Kronoskaf
all unknown details are in grey
Uniform Details as per Lemau de la Jaisse
Headgear black tricorne laced white, with a black or white cockade fastened with a pewter or copper button
Neck stock white
Coat white with red lining and pewter buttons
Collar none
Shoulder straps golden ribbons on the right shoulder
Lapels none
Pockets none
Cuffs red, each with pewter buttons
Turnbacks none
Waistcoat buckskin
Breeches buckskin
Leather Equipment
Bandolier natural leather edged white
Waistbelt natural leather worn above the coat
Cartridge Box no information found
Scabbard black leather with a white metal tip
Footgear black boots
Horse Furniture
Saddlecloth red unknown border
Housings red unknown border
Blanket roll probably white and red


Troopers were armed with a sword, a pistol and a carbine.

NCOs

no information found

Officers

no information found

Musicians

no information found

Standards

no information found

References

Susane, Louis: Histoire de la cavalerie française, Vol. 1, Paris: Hetzel, 1874, pp. 357-365

Menuau, Capitaine: Historique du 14ème régiment de dragons, Paris: Editions Boussod, 1889

Lemau de la Jaisse, P.: Abregé de la Carte Générale du Militaire de France, Paris, 1734, p. 146

Acknowledgment

Jean-Pierre Loriot for the initial version of this article.