Origin and History
The regiment was created on 20 March 1672 from 13 companies of a Catalan regiment named "Mazarin" who later became Royal Roussillon Infanterie. At the end of the year, the regiment was increased to 20 companies.
In 1673, during the Franco-Dutch War (1672–78), the regiment campaigned in Germany. In 1674, it was increased to 30 companies, organised in two battalions. The first battalion took part in the battle of Sinsheim, Ensheim and Mulhausen. Meanwhile, the second battalion remained in the Low Countries and took part in the defence of Grave. In 1675, the first battalion took part in the battle of Turckheim, in the Combat of the Bridge of Altenheim and in the relief of Haguenau and Saverne. In 1676, the first battalion fought in the combat of Kokersberg. In 1677, the entire regiment was at the capture of Valenciennes and took part in the siege of Cambrai, in the Battle of Cassel and in the capture of Saint-Omer. in 1678, it took part in the sieges of Ghent and Ypres, in the Battle of Saint-Denis, in the capture of Kehl.
In 1684, the regiment took part in the siege of Luxembourg.
In 1688, at the outbreak of the Nine Years' War (1688–97), the regiment was initially part of the Reserve in Germany. In 1689, it participated in the relief of Mainz. In 1690, it campaigned on the Rhine. In 1691, it was transferred to Italy where it took part in an expedition in the Aoste Valley, in the capture of Nice, Villefranche, Montalban, Veillane and Carmagnola, and in the siege of the Castle of Montmélian. For the campaign of 1692, the regiment was recalled in Flanders where it took part in the capture of Namur, in the Battle of Steenkerque and in the bombardment of Charleroi. In June 1693, the regiment marched to the Rhine. In 1694, it returned to the Low Countries. In 1695, it was at the bombardment of Bruxelles. In 1696, it was posted on the Scheldt. In 1697, it served on the Meuse.
In 1698, the regiment took part in the training camp of Compiègne.
By the time of the War of the Spanish Succession, the regiment counted two battalions.
During the War of the Spanish Succession, the regiment was commanded by:
- from 1 April 1696: Jean-François, Marquis de Marillac
- from 17 September 1704: Pierre d’Arros, Baron d’Argelos
- from 20 February 1712 to 16 April 1738: Jean-Armand, Comte d’Arros
In 1715, the regiment was reduced to a single battalion.
Service during the War
In 1701, the two battalions of the regiment were sent to the country of Juliers.
On 27 April 1702, a battalion of the regiment passed the Rhine on boats and managed to rejoin the garrison of Kayserwerth which had been invested by the Allies. It then took part in the glorious defence of the place. On 22 May, the regiment distinguished itself in a sortie where the Lieutenant-Colonel d'Olive was killed along with two other officers and 50 soldiers while 23 officers were wounded. Kayserwerth finally surrendered on 15 June and the battalion retired to Venlo.
In 1703, the entire regiment rejoined the army of the Duc de Bourgogne. It took up its winter-quarters in Trier.
In 1704, the regiment accompanied the Maréchal de Tallard in Bavaria. On 13 August, it took part in the disastrous Battle of Blenheim where its brigade was located in the centre of Tallard’s first line and occupied the Castle of Blenheim. In this battle, the Colonel Marquis de Marillac was killed; Lieutenant-Colonel d’Argelos, dangerously wounded; and most of the two battalions taken prisoners and escorted to Ulm.
Most of the regiment remained in captivity until 1707, when Champagne Infanterie made itself master of Schorndorf and the frightened magistrates of Ulm freed the prisoners. Meanwhile, the few soldiers who had escaped reformed a small unit on the Moselle.
In 1706, the remnants of the regiment marched to the relief of Fort-Louis and contributed to the capture of Drusenheim, Lauterbourg and the Marquisat Island.
In 1707, the remnants of the regiment followed Villars in his expedition in Swabia and Franconia. They were finally reunited with the prisoners returning from Ulm.
The regiment then remained in the Lines of the Lauter till the end of the campaign of 1710.
In 1711, the regiment initially campaigned on the frontier of Flanders but, on 12 June, it set off to rejoin the Army of the Rhine. It then remained in Alsace till the end of the war.
In 1713, the regiment took part in the capture of Landau and Freiburg.
This article incorporates texts from the following books which are now in the public domain:
- Susane, Louis: Histoire de l'ancienne infanterie française, J. Corréard, Paris, 1849-1856, Tome 6, pp. 356-362