Liechtenstein Infantry

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Hierarchical Path: War of the Spanish Succession (Main Page) >> Armies >> Austrian Army >> Liechtenstein Infantry

Origin and History

On 2 January 1683, FZM Jacob Count Leslie was authorized by the emperor to raise an infantry regiment of 10 companies, for a total of 2,040 men. The recruits were enlisted in Bavaria, Salzburg and in the cities of Konstanz, Nuremberg and Augsburg. In absence of the proprietor of the regiment, Johann Dominic Marchese Spinola commanded the regiment.

In 1683, during the Great Turkish War, the proprietor of the regiment, Count Leslie, personally took part in the relief of Vienna, but his regiment was not involved in this action. Count Leslie commanded the artillery posted at Nussdorf. In August 1685, a detachment of 700 men of the regiment, led by Lieutenant-Colonel Spinola, took part in the storming of Eszek. In 1686 the regiment took part in the expedition in Lower-Hungary. In 1687, it fought in the Battle of Mohacs and took part in the operations in Slavonia. In 1688, one battalion (5 companies) of the regiment participated in the storming of Belgrade, all other companies were in Požega. In 1689, the regiment took part in the battle of Batočina. In 1695, during the Battle of Lugos, it guarded the baggage. In 1696, it was at the Battle of Ollasch; in 1697, at the siege of Bihacz and at the Battle of Zenta.

Before the end of the century, the regiment had already taken part in several campaigns against the Turks.

By the time of the War of the Spanish Succession, the regiment counted four battalions.

During the War of the Spanish Succession, the successive proprietors of the regiment were:

  • from 2 February 1692: Philipp Erasmus, Fürst von Lichtenstein
  • from 30 January 1704 to 1718: Maximilian Ludwig, Count von Regal

During the War of the Spanish Succession, the successive colonel-commanders of the regiment were:

  • from 1692: the proprietor Duke Liechtenstein
  • from 1704: the proprietor Count Regal
  • from 1708 until 2 June 1717: Alanus von Livingstein

Service during the War

In 1701, two battalions of the regiment were sent from Eszek to Northern Italy to reinforce the army of Prince Eugène de Savoie. Meanwhile, four additional fusilier companies and one grenadier company were raised in Hungary. In mid-November, the two battalions arrived at Rovereto on the Adige. They took their winter-quarters at Concordia on the Po.

In January 1702, 600 men of the regiment were at Spinosa as part of the Imperial forces encircling Mantua. At the beginning of March, the Vienna War Council decided to send the two other battalions to Northern Italy. On 14 March, 400 men of the regiment under Lieutenant Andlaw defended the Castle del Dosso which was stormed by a French party sent forward from Mantua. In April, the third battalion of the regiment arrived in Northern Italy to reinforce the Imperial army. At the end of April, three battalions of the regiment were part of Trautmannsdorf's Corps who abandon the blockade of Mantua and retired to Brusacagne (unidentified location) to observe the movements of the enemy. On 3 May, Eugène changed his mind and instructed Trautmannsdorf to maintain the blockade of Mantua. A battalion (600 men) of the regiment was posted once more at Spinosa. On 20 May, the three battalions were posted at Goito as part of Commercy's Corps. On 11 June, a battalion of the regiment under Major Fresen relieved the Danish Marine Regiment at Ostiglia. On 1 August, IV./Liechtenstein Infantry (1 bn and 1 grenadier coy) finally arrived at Ostiglia from the Hereditary Lands. On 15 August, two battalions and one grenadier company of the regiment took part in the Battle of Luzzara where they were attached to the left column, in Guttenstein’s Brigade.

At the beginning of 1704, the French Maréchal Vendôme besieged Brescello, the garrison capitulated and the fourth battalion of the regiment was taken prisoners by the French. On 3 January, the regiment took part in the storming of Stradella, which was defended by the Spanish General Sartirana. In this affair, the regiment lost Lieutenant-Colonel Kornfeil and 6 men killed. On 11 January, the proprietor of the regiment, FML Duke Liechtenstein, was killed during combats on the Bormida River between Vendôme and Starhemberg’s Corps. On 30 January, Colonel Max Ludwig Baron Regal was appointed as the new proprietor of the regiment.

At the beginning of the campaign of 1704, the first and second battalions served with the Allies in Piedmont, while the third battalion was posted in Ostiglia and the fourth battalion (prisoners in Brescello) was replaced by a newly raised battalion in Upper-Austria. Colonel Regal and two battalions of his regiment took part in the defence of Verrua (the place would capitulate in April 1705 after a siege of nearly one year). The third battalion (278 men only!) was with the troops of G.d.C. Count Leiningen in Gavardo.

From 1705, Lieutenant-Colonel Alanus von Livingstein assumed effective command of the regiment, but Colonel Regal remained its nominal commander.

For the campaign of 1705, 900 recruits arrived from Bohemia and the newly enlisted fourth battalion also joined the regiment in Italy. On 16 August, two battalions of the regiment fought in the Battle of Cassano, where they were deployed in the first line of the infantry centre. In this affair, they lost 43 men killed and 15 wounded. By the end of the year, the army of Prince Eugéne de Savoie was in very poor condition. Prince Eugéne went to Vienna to obtain the necessary money, During his absence the Danish General Reventlau assumed interim command in Italy.

At the beginning of 1706, half the regiment and the grenadiers were in Turin, and the rest of the unit in the camp of Calcinato. The entire regiment then numbered only 1,057 men. Shortly afterwards, it received 636 recruits from Bohemia. At the beginning of July, one battalion of the regiment was with the expeditionary corps of Colonel Battée in the region of Verona. On 7 September, the regiment took part in the Battle of Turin, where it was deployed in the middle of second line, under General Claude Alexandre de Bonneval. After the battle both parts of the regiment were reunited, and allocated to corps FML Georg Friedrich von Kriechbaum. The regiment then took part in the siege of Chivasso which capitulated on 16 September. On 24 September, the Allied army reached Milan. By the end of September, the regiment was with the corps of FZM Wirich Philipp Count Daun, and took part the short siege of Pavia, before taking up its winter-quarters along the road leading from Casalmaggiore to Cremona.

In first months of 1707, the regiment received 898 recruits from Troppau (present-day Opava/CZ) and was now organized in 3 battalions à 4 companies and one grenadier company. Two of the battalions were field battalions, and the third a garrison battalion. On 19 May, Prince Eugéne concentrated his army at Borgoforte. The regiment did not take the field in the campaign of 1707, and remained in the Aosta Valley. In August, the regiment and its proprietor, Count Regal, followed the main army to Nice, but returned to Piedmont without having seen any action. The regiment then remained in Pinerolo until October and took its winter-quarters in Cremona.

At the beginning of 1708, Prince Eugène left for the Netherlands, and FZM Wirich Philipp Count Daun assumed command in Italy. There were no remarkable combats during the whole year. FML Regal occupied Exilles, but FZM Daun ordered him to return to his original positions. The two field battalions (a total of 1,366 men) led by Colonel Alanus von Livingstein and Lieutenant-Colonel Erasmus Count Starhemberg took part in the occupation on the Papal States and came to Imola and Rimini. The third battalion garrisoned places in Upper Italy.

In 1709, the regiment took part in the expedition against Moutières and Annecy and in the occupation of Conflans. It took once more its winter-quarters in Cremona.

In 1710, the regiment contributed 298 men for the creation of Eckh Infantry and Browne de Camus Infantry. The two field battalions numbered a total of only 900 men. The third battalion (363 men) garrisoned Mantua, Mirandola and Sabionetta. There were no remarkable action during the whole year.

For the campaign of 1711, the regiment received recruits from Bohemia and formed three battalions à 5 companies and 1 grenadier company, for a total of 1,300 men. During this uneventful campaign, FML Regal drove the French back to Conflans, but then returned to Milan. Later, one battalion led by Major von Bärenklau, was allocated to the corps of FML Zumjungen to serve against Spanish troops in Tuscany. However, due to the lack of ships, these operations were delayed until 1712.

On 14 March 1712, FML Zumjungen finally arrived at Porto d’Ercole with his corps and laid siege to this place. On 10 April, Allied warships joined Zumjungen’s Corps in front of Porto d’Ercole, which surrendered on 4 May. FML Zumjungen then made a junction with the main army in Piedmont. Two battalions of the regiment were sent to San Colomban. On 22 July, the French attacked the place but were driven back. After the signature of armistice of four months, Imperial troops returned to their winter-quarters, the present regiment returning once more to Cremona.

In 1713, the regiment (3 battalions and 2 grenadier companies) went by way of Trient, Innsbruck and Mittenwald to Donauwörth. One battalion, led by Major Bärenklau, remained in Ingolstadt. On 2 September, the two other battalions and the grenadiers, led by Lieutenant-Colonel Erasmus Count Starhemberg, arrived at the camp of Prince Eugène’s Army near Karlsruhe. However, Landau capitulated to the French army of the Maréchal de Villars on August 26; the city of Freiburg, on October 15; and the Castle of Freiburg on November 17.

Peace negotiations were then undertaken and the Treaty of Rastatt was ratified on 7 March 1714. The regiment was then sent to Hungary. By the end of the year, six companies were garrisoning Ofen (part of Budapest/HU), eight companies along with the regimental staff were at Eisenburg (present-day Vasvár/HU), and three companies in the Komitat of Pest.

Uniform

Privates

Uniform in 1704 - Copyright: Richard Couture
Uniform Details as per
Donath, Czegka, Hall
Headgear
Fusilier black tricorne laced white; as field sign, green foliage was attached to the tricorne in summer and a wisp of straw in winter

N.B.: to distinguish soldiers (from corporal down to privates) of each company, a button or rosette at the colour of the company was attached to the tricorne.

Grenadier bearskin edged with a white braid; medium blue hanging bag edged with a white braid in a zigzag pattern
Neck stock red
Coat pearl grey with medium blue lining; yellow buttons on the right side and 1 yellow button on each side in the small of the back
Collar none
Shoulder Straps none
Lapels none
Pockets horizontal pockets, each with 3 yellow buttons
Cuffs medium blue, each with 3 yellow buttons
Turnbacks none
Waistcoat medium blue
Breeches medium blue
Stockings white fastened under the knee with a natural leather strap
Gaiters made of canvas and used only when the soldier wore linen breeches; in this case, the stockings were replaced by linen socks; the use of gaiters generalized much later
Leather Equipment
Crossbelt natural leather
Waistbelt a yellow deer or buffalo leather waist-belt worn above the waistcoat
Cartridge Pouch red or black leather pouch containing 24 cartridges, a pewter oil flask, two needles attached to a small chain (to clean the touch-hole of the lock), a tube that held the match for lighting the fuse of grenades, with a wooden peg on a small chain and a roll of fuse. The cartridge box had two cover flaps. The top one was sometimes decorated with a metal badge bearing the cipher or the arms of the Inhaber.

Grenadiers carried two cartridge pouches. The first one, slightly larger than that of fusiliers, was worn on wide cross-belt and contained grenades and a pewter tube that held the match for lighting the fuse of grenades; the smaller second pouch was attached to the waist-belt and contained cartridges for the musket.

Bayonet Scabbard black leather
Scabbard none
Footwear Russia leather shoes


Armaments consisted of a musket and a bayonet. Grenadiers were also armed with hand grenades.

NCOs

NCOs carried a spontoon (half-pike). They were also armed with a Stossdegen (a long two-edged estoc or rapier) carried in a black leather scabbard attached to the waist-belt.

NCOs of grenadier companies carried a flintlock musket instead of the spontoon.

NCOs also carried a cane whose characteristics indicated their precise rank. This cane had the length of a walking stick and was carried in and out of service. In action, to free hands, the cane was hanged to a button of the coat. Grenadier sergeants and fouriers were distinguished from privates by three silver braids on the bag of their bearskin.

Officers

Uniforms of officers were always of finer cloth than those of the privates. The were also distinguished from the uniforms of privates by the following differences:

  • a black tricorne with a black plumetis
  • a medium blue coat edged black with gilt buttons; cuffs, sleeves and pocket flaps were also edged with a black braid
  • a straw waistcoat
  • straw breeches
  • white stockings

Officers wore a black and yellow silk sash across the chest or around the waist.

Lieutenants of the grenadier companies were distinguished from privates and NCOs by four golden braids on the bag of their bearskin; captains by five golden braids on their bearskin.

Officers carried a partisan. The partisan was decorated with a tassel: gold for the colonel, gold with silver fringe for the lieutenant-colonel, gold and silken fringe for captains and silken fringe for lieutenants. In some regiments, the captains' tassel was entirely of silk; in this case the lieutenants' partisan had no tassel. The partisans of staff officers had gilt butt caps.

Officers were also armed with a Stossdegen (a long two-edged estoc or rapier) carried in a black leather scabbard attached to the waist-belt.

Officers carried a cane whose characteristics indicated their precise rank. This cane had the length of a walking stick and was carried in and out of service. In action, to free hands, the cane was hanged to a button of the coat.

Officers of grenadier companies carried a flintlock musket instead of the partisan. Captains, lieutenants and sergeants of these companies always had their bayonet affixed to their musket.

In the field, officers carried a pair of pistols.

Musicians

In the Austrian Army of the time, musicians often wore uniforms in reverse colours with the distinctive colour of the regiment used for the coat.

The drum belt was usually brown and worn on the right shoulder.

Colours

no information found yet

References

Abtheilung für Kriegsgeschichte des k. k. Kriegs-Archives: Feldzüge des Prinzen Eugen von Savoyen, Series 1, Vol. 1, Vienna 1875, pp. 212-218, 222-227

Czegka, Eduard: Uniformen der kaiserlichen Infanterie unter Prinz Eugen. in: Zeitschrift für Heereskunde 49-51, 1933, pp. 459-473

Donath, Rudolf; Die Kaiserliche und Kaiserlich-Königliche Österreichische Armee 1618-1918, 2. Aufl., Simbach/Inn 1979

Finke, E.: Geschichte des k. k. 36. Linien-Infanterie-Regiments, Prague, 1875

Gräffer, August: Geschichte der kaiserl. Königl. Regimenter, Corps, Bataillons und anderer Militär-Branchen seit ihrer Errichtung biz zu Ende des Feldzuges 1799, Vol. 1, Vienna, 1804, pp. 161-166

Hall, Robert and Giancarlo Boeri: Uniforms and Flags of the Imperial Austrian Army 1683-1720, 2008, p. 177

Seyfart, Kurzgefaßte Geschichte aller kaiserlich-königlichen Regimenter zu Pferde und zu Fuß, Frankfurth and Leipzig, 1762, pp. 6-7

Acknowledgements

Harald Skala for the translation and integration of Finke’s book