Longueval-Buquoy Infantry

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Hierarchical Path: War of the Spanish Succession (Main Page) >> Armies >> Austrian Army >> Longueval-Buquoy Infantry

Origin and History

The regiment was raised in 1701 according to a patent issued on 1 April of the same year. Alt-Daun Infantry and Hasslingen Infantry each ceded one battalion to create this new unit. Its proprietor was Philipp Karl Emanuel, Prince Longueval-Buquoy till his death in 1703.

During the War of the Spanish Succession, the chefs of the regiment were:

  • from 1701: Philipp Karl Emanuel, Prince Longueval-Buquoy
  • from 1703 to 1721: Lothar Count Königsegg-Rothenfels

The successive effective commanders of the regiment during the War of the Spanish Succession were:

  • from 1701: Johann Melchior Baron Salzer von Rosenstein
  • from 1703: its proprietor, Count Königsegg-Rothenfels
  • from 1705: Christian Count Eckh (aka Egg or Egkh)
  • from 1707: Johann Joseph Count O’Dwyer
  • from 1708: Joseph Count Galler
  • from 1711 until 1719: Fellner von Feldegg

This regiment was disbanded 1720, its soldiers were transferred to regiments stationed in Sicily (Bayreuth, Wetzel, Ottokar Starhemberg, Traun disbanded in 1748 and Diesbach).

Service during the War

In 1701, immediately after its creation, the regiment was sent to join the army of Prince Eugène de Savoie who had undertaken the invasion of Northern Italy. On 22 August, the 2 battalions of the regiment, arriving from Tyrol, reached Eugène's camp at Pontoglio. On 1 September, the two battalions of the regiment took part in the Battle of Chiari. On 18 November, the two last battalions finally arrived at Rovereto on the Adige. In December, the regiment took its winter-quarters at Castiglione delle Stiviere (2 bns), Castelgoffredo (1 bn) and Volta and Medole (1 bn).

By May 1702, the regiment were posted at Castiglione under the command of Herberstein. On 6 May, two battalions and 1 grenadier coys were sent to the main army (5 coys were left at Castiglione delle Stiviere). On 1 June, the 5 coys defending Castiglione surrendered as prisoners of war. At the beginning of June, the regiment could field only the two battalions and 1 grenadier coys who had joined the field army. By 2 August, 1 battalion and 1 grenadier coy were posted near Borgoforte under General Count Neipperg.

In 1703, the regiment took part in the surprise attack on San Pelegrino.

In 1704, the regiment garrisoned Mirandola.

On 16 August 1705, the regiment took part in the Battle of Cassano, where it was deployed in the centre of the first line.

On 19 April 1706, the regiment formed part of Leiningen’s Corps and took part in the Battle of Calcinato. On 7 September, it fought in the Battle of Turin.

In 1707, the regiment took part in the campaign in Provence and in the the siege of Toulon. It was later engaged at Susa.

In 1708, the regiment was part of the Imperial forces which occupied the Papal States.

From 1709 to 1712, the regiment operated in Northern Italy, where it garrisoned various places.

Uniform

Privates

Uniform in 1702 - Copyright: Richard Couture
Uniform Details as per
Hall
Headgear
Fusilier black tricorne laced white; as field sign, green foliage was attached to the tricorne in summer and a wisp of straw in winter

N.B.: to distinguish soldiers (from corporal down to privates) of each company, a button or rosette at the colour of the company was attached to the tricorne.

Grenadier bearskin edged with a white braid; light blue hanging bag edged with a white braid in a zigzag pattern
Neck stock white
Coat pearl grey with light blue lining; pewter buttons on the right side and 1 pewter button on each side in the small of the back
Collar none
Shoulder Straps none
Lapels none
Pockets horizontal pockets, each with 3 pewter buttons
Cuffs light blue, each with 3 pewter buttons
Turnbacks none
Waistcoat light blue with pewter buttons
Breeches light blue
Stockings light blue fastened under the knee with a natural leather strap
Gaiters made of canvas and used only when the soldier wore linen breeches; in this case, the stockings were replaced by linen socks; the use of gaiters generalized much later
Leather Equipment
Crossbelt natural leather
Waistbelt a yellow deer or buffalo leather waist-belt worn above the waistcoat
Cartridge Pouch red or black leather pouch containing 24 cartridges, a pewter oil flask, two needles attached to a small chain (to clean the touch-hole of the lock), a tube that held the match for lighting the fuse of grenades, with a wooden peg on a small chain and a roll of fuse. The cartridge box had two cover flaps. The top one was sometimes decorated with a metal badge bearing the cipher or the arms of the Inhaber.

Grenadiers carried two cartridge pouches. The first one, slightly larger than that of fusiliers, was worn on wide cross-belt and contained grenades and a pewter tube that held the match for lighting the fuse of grenades; the smaller second pouch was attached to the waist-belt and contained cartridges for the musket.

Bayonet Scabbard black leather
Scabbard none
Footwear Russia leather shoes


Armaments consisted of a musket and a bayonet. Grenadiers were also armed with hand grenades.

NCOs

NCOs carried a spontoon (half-pike). They were also armed with a Stossdegen (a long two-edged estoc or rapier) carried in a black leather scabbard attached to the waist-belt.

NCOs of grenadier companies carried a flintlock musket instead of the spontoon.

NCOs also carried a cane whose characteristics indicated their precise rank. This cane had the length of a walking stick and was carried in and out of service. In action, to free hands, the cane was hanged to a button of the coat. Grenadier sergeants and fouriers were distinguished from privates by three silver braids on the bag of their bearskin.

Officers

Uniforms of officers were always of finer cloth than those of the privates. The were also distinguished from the uniforms of privates by the following differences:

  • a black tricorne edged gold
  • a white neck cloth
  • a scarlet coat with scarlet distinctive edged gold with gilt buttons
  • a light blue waistcoat
  • light blue breeches
  • white stockings

Officers wore a black and yellow silk sash across the chest or around the waist.

Lieutenants of the grenadier companies were distinguished from privates and NCOs by four golden braids on the bag of their bearskin; captains by five golden braids on their bearskin.

Officers carried a partisan. The partisan was decorated with a tassel: gold for the colonel, gold with silver fringe for the lieutenant-colonel, gold and silken fringe for captains and silken fringe for lieutenants. In some regiments, the captains' tassel was entirely of silk; in this case the lieutenants' partisan had no tassel. The partisans of staff officers had gilt butt caps.

Officers were also armed with a Stossdegen (a long two-edged estoc or rapier) carried in a black leather scabbard attached to the waist-belt.

Officers carried a cane whose characteristics indicated their precise rank. This cane had the length of a walking stick and was carried in and out of service. In action, to free hands, the cane was hanged to a button of the coat.

Officers of grenadier companies carried a flintlock musket instead of the partisan. Captains, lieutenants and sergeants of these companies always had their bayonet affixed to their musket.

In the field, officers carried a pair of pistols.

Musicians

In the Austrian army of the time, drummers often wore uniforms in reverse colours with the distinctive colour of the regiment used for the coat. The uniforms of the musicians of this particular regiment were also distinguished from the uniforms of privates by the following differences:

  • a light blue coat with white cuffs edged white; light blue horizontal pockets edged white; a white braid on the seams on the sleeves; silver buttons
  • a white waistcoat
  • white breeches
  • white stockings

The drum belt was usually brown and worn on the right shoulder.

The drum rims were light blue and the copper drum barrel was decorated with a black double-headed eagle and light blue flames.

Colors

Colonel colour (Leibfahne): no information found yet

Battalion colours (Bataillonsfahne): red field bordered with alternating light blue and white flames (light blue flames pointing inwards, white flames pointing outwards); centre device consisting of a crowned and armed Imperial double-eagle with the the initials of Emperor Leopold I LI (Leopold Imperator) on its breast

Bataillonsfahne – Copyright: Richard Couture

References

Abtheilung für Kriegsgeschichte des k. k. Kriegs-Archives: Feldzüge des Prinzen Eugen von Savoyen

  • Series 1, Vol. 1, Vienna 1875, pp. 212-218, 222-227
  • Series 1, Vol. 4, Vienna 1875, pp. 140

Hall, Robert and Giancarlo Boeri: Uniforms and Flags of the Imperial Austrian Army 1683-1720, 2008

Kühn & Hall: The Imperial Regiments of Foot 1701-1714, Part 21

Wrede, A. v.: Geschichte der K. und K. Wehrmacht, file II. page 183ff, Vienna 1898

Acknowledgments

Harald Skala for providing most of the information for this article