Lybeck Infantry

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Hierarchical Path: War of the Spanish Succession (Main Page) >> Armies >> Palatine Army >> Lybeck Infantry

Origin and History

The origins of this regiment can traced back to 1671, when Field Marshal Virmond raised 11 companies. Among them were the companies of Colonel Friedrich Christian baron von Spee which would form the kernel of the latter "Infanterie Regiment Lybeck" (aka Lübeck).

In May 1676, Spee's regiment (10 companies) Spee along with Schellart Cavalry entered in the Spanish service and accompanied the army of the Duke Villa Hermosa to Bruxelles. In 1677, the regiment returned to the Palatine army camp at Reckum. Baron Spee was appointed Generalkriegskommissär (General-commisioner of war), and his regiment was ceded to Franz Jakob d'Avila. The regiment was now called "Jung-d'Avila".

In 1687, Colonel Leopold Hugo Baron von Lybeck, the governor of Jülich, was appointed proprietor of regiment "Jung d'Avila".

In 1690, the regiment garrisoned Euskirchen; in 1695, Düsseldorf.

In August 1697, during the campaign, the regiment was allocated to the corps of Margrave Christian Ernst von Bayreuth and spent the winter in the County of Jülich-Berg.

During the War of the Spanish Succession, the successive Chefs of the regiment were:

  • from 1687 to 1714: Leopold Hugo Baron Lybeck (FZM)

During the War of the Spanish Succession, the successive commanders of the regiment were:

  • from 1702: Colonel Jakob von Spieß (died in 1702)
  • from 1703: Colonel Jacob von Cocetti (killed in 1708 at Lille)
  • from 1708: Colonel Claudius de Souquet

Service during the War

1701

In 1701, the regiment, now increased to 16 companies, garrisoned in the Electorate of Palatinate. It took up its winter-quarters in Mannheim and was later transferred to Speyer.

1702

In March 1702, the regiment was posted on the Upper Rhine in the camp of Lustadt near of Landau. By the end of April, it was posted beyond the Lauter River.

In the order of battle of 10 June, the regiment was deployed in the first line of the right wing and took part in the Siege of Landau, where it was initially posted along the left bank of the Flurbach extending towards Landau, covered by the height of Wollmersheim. At the end of July, it was deployed in the corps of the Dutch General Dopff, near Maastricht.

In the order of battle of 21 October, the regiment was part of the Corps de Reserve led by General Rehbinder.

The regiment took up its winter-quarters at Homburg and Leuterecken in Palatinate.

1703

In January 1703, the regiment was posted in the vicinity of Alzey, Kreuznach, Neustadt/Haardt.

In June, the regiment was posted in the Lines of the Lauter on the right bank of the Rhine as part of the army of Field Marshal von Thüngen

In October, the regiment was deployed in the corps of the Count Nassau-Weilburg, which secured Electorate of Palatinate.

In November, the regiment was part of the force under Prince Frederic of Hesse-Kassel, which tried to relieve Landau and, on 15 November, fought in the Combat on Speyerbach, where it was posted on the left wing of the first line.

Part of the regiment spent winter in the Stollhofen Lines, and other parts in Mannheim and Heidelberg.

1704

From 15 April 1704, the regiment (1,257 men), along with other Palatine regiments, was in Imperial pay. The regiment did not participate in the siege of Landau but took up its winter-quarters in the Duchy of Neuburg.

1705

In 1705, the regiment garrisoned Düsseldorf during the whole year.

1706

In 1706, the first battalion initially garrisoned Jülich. From 26 May, it was in Dutch pay. In August, it was transferred to the Netherlands. In mid-September, this battalion took part in the siege and capture of Ath. It then took up its winter-quarters in Maastricht.

1708

On 23 June 1708, the second battalion of the regiment was allocated to the army of Prince Eugène, which was operating on the Moselle. However, the battalion did not see any action during this campaign.

1709

From 22 March 1709, the second battalion was taken in Imperial pay. From 6 to 28 July, it took part in the Siege of Tournai, where it was posted on the left bank of the Scheldt River. On 11 September, it fought in the Battle of Malplaquet.

1710

In April and May 1710, the first battalion was at the Siege Douai. In September, it took part in the Siege of Saint-Venant. From September to November, the second battalion was at the Siege of Aire.


1711

In 1711, the two battalions (each of 640 men) of the regiment were part of the "Neutralitäts Korps" stationed in Silesia, After a long, idleness in the camp, the troops were recalled to the Lower Rhine. The first battalion was posted at Maastricht, and the second in the County of Jülich.

Uniform

Privates (circa 1703)

Uniform circa 1703 - Copyright: Richard Couture
Uniform Details as per Bezzel and Robert Hall
Headgear
Fusilier black felt hat
Grenadier no information found
Neck stock white
Coat red with yellow lining and with tin buttons from top to bottom on the right side, one tin button on each side in the small of the back
Collar none
Shoulder Straps none
Lapels none
Pockets horizontal pockets, each with 3 tin buttons
Cuffs yellow, each with 3 tin buttons
Turnbacks none (it seems that the basques of the coat could be turned back if needed but this was a rare practice during this period)
Waistcoat yellow with tin buttons from top to bottom
Breeches dark blue
Stockings white
Leather Equipment
Crossbelt buff leather
Waistbelt buff leather, worn above the coat
Cartridge Pouch buff leather
Bayonet Scabbard buff leather
Scabbard buff leather with brass tip
Footwear black shoes fastened with a strap


Armaments consisted of a musket and a bayonet; and a sword.

Privates (circa 1707)

Uniform circa 1707 - Copyright: Richard Couture
Uniform Details as per Bezzel and Robert Hall
Headgear
Fusilier black felt hat laced yellow
Grenadier black bearskin with a red flame decorated with a yellow tassel
Neck stock white
Coat dark blue with red lining and with yellow buttons from top to bottom on the right side, one yellow button on each side in the small of the back
Collar none
Shoulder Straps braided white/dark blue aiguillette on the right shoulder
Lapels none
Pockets horizontal pockets, each with 3 yellow buttons
Cuffs red, each with 3 yellow buttons
Turnbacks none (it seems that the basques of the coat could be turned back if needed but this was a rare practice during this period)
Waistcoat red with yellow buttons from top to bottom
Breeches red
Stockings white
Leather Equipment
Crossbelt buff leather
Waistbelt buff leather, worn above the coat
Cartridge Pouch buff leather
Bayonet Scabbard buff leather
Scabbard buff leather with brass tip
Footwear black shoes fastened with a strap


Armaments consisted of a musket and a bayonet; and a sword.

NCOs

NCOs wore uniforms similar to those of the rank and file but with the following distinctions:

  • cuffs bordered with a braid
  • absence of the large ammunition pouch

Corporals and sergeant-majors carried a stick and a halberd or a pike.

Officers

Officers carried spontoons and had white and blue sashes.

Musicians

The uniforms of the musicians were identical to those of the rank and file but decorated with lace.

The shell of the drums were decorated with alternating white and blue flames and carried the cypher of the Electorate of Palatinate.

Colours

no information found

References

Bezzel, O.: Geschichte des Kurpfälzischen Heeres, Bayrisches Kriegsarchiv, IV. File, part 1 and 2, Munich 1925

Goldberg, Claus-Peter and Robert Hall: War of the Spanish Succession 1701-1714 – Electorate Palatine under Elector Johann Wilhelm 1690-1716, s.l., 2003

Acknowledgement

Harald Skala the initial version of this article