Marine Regiment

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Hierarchical Path: War of the Spanish Succession (Main Page) >> Armies >> Danish Army >> Marine Regiment

Origin and History

The regiment was raised in 1672 by Christian IV and assigned, under the command of Captain Vogel, to garrison duty at the Glückstadt naval base on the Elbe.

It was generally considered to be a punishment to be a marine. Therefore, the regiment recruited mostly among soldiers who were not retained by other infantry units. The Marineregimentet was reputed for its fighting spirit.

By the time of the War of the Spanish Succession, the regiment counted two battalions (10 fusilier companies and 1 grenadier company) and was garrisoned in Copenhagen.

During the War of the Spanish Succession, the commanders of the regiment were:

  • since 1699: L. Hohndorff
  • from 1708: A. A. Gaffron
  • from 1710 to 1719: A. Andichou

The Battalion in Austrian pay was under the command of:

  • from 1700 to 1 March 1703: Daniel Plessen

In 1741, the regiment was renamed "Bornholm Infantry" and was garrisoned in Rendsburg in Schleswig-Holstein.

Service during the War

In 1700, one battalion (5 coys) of the regiment was sent to Saxony.

In 1701, this battalion was attached to the Danish Contingent taken in Austrian pay. In March, this contingent was in Saxony but had already been ordered to join the Imperial army assembling in Tyrol for the planned invasion of Northern Italy. By mid-November, the contingent had reached Bolzano. By 8 December, it was incorporated in Commercy's Corps who took position at Povegliano. The regiment took its winter-quarters in Governolo.

In 1702, the battalion in Austrian pay took part in the Campaign in Northern Italy. On 15 August, it fought at the Battle of Luzzara.

On 1 March 1703, the remaining troops of the battalion were incorporated into the newly formed 1st, 2nd and 3rd Danske Infantry Regiments.

Uniform

Privates

Uniform from 1701 to 1704 - Copyright: Richard Couture
Uniform Details as per
Snorasson and Henriksen, and Martinsson
Headgear
Fusilier black felt flat topped hat with brims variously fastened up (one side, two sides or three sides or worn as a simple slouch hat). The brim was usually edged with a braid. A cord ran around the basis of the crown. A rosette in the distinctive colour of the regiment or later a black cockade was worn on the left side of the hat. The lace and the cord could have been of the distinctive colour of the regiment (particularly in the early years of the conflict) or in the metal colour of the regiment (yellow or white).
Grenadier Grenadier caps came in several design from the popular cloth mitre cap to the bearskin with a hanging bag or the fur bonnet.
Neck stock white
Coat double-breasted grey-white coat with grey-white lining and with 22 pewter buttons (11 on each side) and 1 pewter button on each side in the small of the back. In the first years of the war, all buttonholes were usually trimmed in the distinctive colour of the regiment.
Collar none
Shoulder Straps none
Lapels none
Pockets horizontal pockets, each with 3 pewter buttons with grey-white trimmed buttonholes
Cuffs grey-white, each with 3 pewter buttons
Turnbacks none
Waistcoat grey-white with pewter buttons
Breeches grey-white during the early years of the war and gradually standardized to red
Stockings grey-white fastened under the knee with a natural leather strap
Gaiters the use of gaiters generalized much later but they were already used in 1700 where red gaiters are reported
Leather Equipment
Cross-belt yellowish natural leather worn across the left shoulder
Waist-belt yellowish natural leather waist-belt worn above the coat
Cartridge Box black for fusiliers

grenadiers carried a large grenade pouch containing two grenades and cartridges.

Bayonet Scabbard black leather
Scabbard black
Footwear black leather shoes with a brass buckle


The uniform changed in 1707 to a grey-white coat with blue lining, blue cuffs and blue collar; black tricorne laced white; blue breeches; blue stockings.

Soldiers were armed with a flintlock musket, a small bayonet and a sword (fusiliers) or a sabre (grenadiers). Grenadiers were also armed with hand grenades and with a small axe.

NCOs

NCOs were probably distinguished from privates by a silver lace on the hat and by silver edging on the cuffs.

NCOs carried a cane whose characteristics indicated the precise rank of each NCO.

NCOs also carried a halberd and a sword. They had no musket.

Officers

Uniforms of officers differed from those of the privates and NCOs by the finer material used. They were not standardized across the entire army but seems to have been similar within a regiment. Buttons were silver-plated and silver embroideries decorated the coat, cuffs and pocket flaps. Their coat could be single or double-breasted.

The hats of officers were often edged with a red or white plumetis.

Officers usually wore a wig.

Officers wore a gorget and a silken sash of the distinctive colour of their regiment. Those serving in Dutch pay wore an orange sash across the shoulder.

Officers carried a cane whose characteristics indicated the precise rank of each officer; a pike and a sword. Officers of the grenadier companies carried a musket instead of a pike.

In the field, pistols of various forms were carried by officers who often carried two of them when dismounted.

Musicians

Drummers usually wore coats similar to those of privates but richly decorated with braids on the sleeves and body (without swallow nests). Braids were usually of the metal colour of the regiment.

The shell of the drum was of painted woods and decorated with the regimental arms or the King's double monogram.

Colours

The colonel company carried the colonel colour and each other company carried its own company colour.

Colonel Colour: no information found

Ordonnance Colour: light blue field spangled with golden stars; centre device consisting of the crowned monogram of Frederick IV in gold surrounded by a laurel wreath; corner devices consisting of silver flames; a white wavy stripe along the upper and lower edge (Source: Snorrason as per Kühn).

Ordonnance Colour - Copyright: Kronoskaf


References

Martinsson, Örjan: Danish Infantry Uniforms 1700-1730 in Tacitus.nu

Snorasson, Torstein and Søren Henriksen: Danish Uniforms 1699-1712, in Chakoten, translated and published by Dan Schorr in 2008

Vaupell, O. F.: Den Danske Haers Historie, Copenhagen 1876, p. 632

Wikipedia

N.B.: the section Service during the War is mostly derived from our articles depicting the various campaigns, battles and sieges.

Acknowledgements

Jörg Meier for additional information on this regiment.