Orléans Cavalerie

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Hierarchical Path: War of the Spanish Succession (Main Page) >> Armies >> French Army >> Orléans Cavalerie

Origin and History

The regiment was raised in Piedmont in 1630 by the Commander de Souvré. On 16 May 1635, the regiment transferred into the French service. However, it continued to serve in Italy, distinguishing itself in the “Combat de la Route” in 1639.

On 20 March 1647, Anne d'Autriche purchased the regiment for her second son, Philippe d'Anjou. The regiment remained under the command of Souvré

In 1649, the regiment was transferred from Italy to Catalonia. In 1650, it was sent to Champagne, where it took part in the Battle of Rethel. In 1652, it fought under Turenne in the combats of Bléneau, Étampes and Saint-Antoine. In 1653, it was sent to Roussillon. In 1654, it joined the Army of Catalonia. The same year, it incorporated a foreign cavalry regiment belonging to the Duc d’Anjou. The regiment continued to serve in Catalonia until the Treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659.

On 12 April 1660, at the death of Gaston d'Orléans, Philippe became Duc d’Orléans and his regiment was renamed accordingly. The regiment was disbanded on 18 April 18 1661 with the exception of the company belonging to the Duc d'Orléans.

On 7 December 1665, the regiment was re-established for the Duc d'Orléans. In 1666, it was at the training camp of Compiègne.

In 1667, at the outbreak of the War of Devolution (1667-68), the regiment (9 companies) was present at the capture of Tournai, Douai and Lille.

In 1668, the regiment was reduced to two companies.

In 1672, at the beginning of the Franco-Dutch War (1672-78), the regiment was increased to six companies. It then campaigned in Holland. In 1673, it took part in the siege of Maastricht; in 1674, in the Battle of Seneffe and in the relief of Oudenarde; in 1675, in the capture of Dinant, Huy and Limbourg; in 1676, in the capture of Condé, Bouchain and Aire; in 1677, in the sieges of Valenciennes and Cambrai; in 1678, in the sieges of Ghent and Ypres; and in 1679, in the Battle of Minden.

In 1681, the regiment was at the camp of Upper Alsace; in 1682, at the camp of Artois; in 1683, at the sieges of Courtrai and Dixmude; and in 1684, at the siege of Luxembourg.

In 1688, at the outbreak of the Nine Years' War (1688-97), the regiment took part in the siege of Philippsburg and in the conquest of Palatinate; and in 1689, in the Combat of Walcourt. In 1690 and 1691, it served in Germany. In 1692, it was at the siege of Namur and fought in the Battle of Steenkerque. In 1693, it took part in the Battle of Landen and in the capture of Charleroi; and in 1694, in the engagements near Tongres and Bruxelles. The regiment was then assigned to corps posted on the Meuse.

In 1689, the regiment was at the camp of Compiègne.

At the beginning of the War of the Spanish Succession, the regiment counted three squadrons. However, in the early years of the war, various orders of battle mentions only two squadrons.

During the War of the Spanish Succession, the regiment was under the nominal command of the Duc d’Orléans.

During the War of the Spanish Succession, the successive mestres de camp lieutenants of the regiment were:

  • from 1 May 1693: Jacques-Joseph Vipart, Marquis de Silly
  • from 25 December 1704 to 6 March 1719: Nicolas-Louis Grostête de Jouy

Service during the War

In 1701, the regiment served in Flanders. By October, it was posted in Aarschot, where it took its winter-quarters.

At the end of April 1702, the regiment was stationed in Upper Guelderland. It later took part in the Combat of Nijmegen in Flanders. In December, it took up its winter-quarters in Arras and Bapaume.

In February 1703, the regiment was sent to Luxembourg. At the beginning of June, it had joined the Army of the Rhine. In August and September, it took part in the siege and capture of Alt-Breisach. From September to November, it was at the Siege of Landau. On 15 November, it fought in the Combat of Speyerbach, where it was deployed in the first line of the cavalry left wing.

On 13 August 1704, the regiment fought in the disastrous Battle of Blenheim, where its mestre de camp lieutenant was wounded and taken prisoner.

In 1705, the regiment was brought to full strength in Alsace.

In 1706, the regiment took part in the operations on the Rhine.

In 1707, the regiment was transferred to Flanders.

On 11 July 1708, the regiment fought in the Battle of Oudenarde.

On 11 September 1709, the regiment fought in the Battle of Malplaquet.

In 1711, the regiment took part in the Combat of Arleux.

On 24 July 1712, the regiment was present at the Battle of Denain. In August and September, it was at the Siege and recapture of Douai; in September and October, at the Siege and recapture of Le Quesnoy; and in October, at the Siege and recapture of Bouchain.

In 1713, the regiment was transferred to the Rhine, where it contributed to the capture of Landau and Freiburg.

Uniform

no information found

Standards

Regimental standards: red field embroidered and fringed in gold;

  • obverse: centre device consisting of a golden royal sun surmounted by a scroll bearing the royal motto “Nec Pluribus Impar” in gold; in each corner a golden fleurs de lys
  • reverse: centre device consisting of the arms of Orléans surrounded by the necklace of the Toison d'Or and Saint Esprit and surmounted by a gold crown; the entire centre device was surrounded by 10 small golden fleurs de lys hanged to silver bars; in each corner a golden fleurs de lys
Tentative Reconstruction
Regimental Standard - Copyright: Kronoskaf

References

This article incorporates texts from the following books which are now in the public domain:

  • Susane, Louis: Histoire de la cavalerie française, Vol. 2, J. Hetzel et Cie, Paris, 1874, pp. 215-226
  • Pajol, Charles P. V.: Les Guerres sous Louis XV, vol. VII, Paris, 1891, p. 352-353

Other sources

Funcken, L. and F., Les uniformes de la guerre en dentelle

N.B.: the section Service during the War is mostly derived from our articles depicting the various campaigns, battles and sieges.