Saint-Pouanges Cavalerie

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Hierarchical Path: War of the Spanish Succession (Main Page) >> Armies >> French Army >> Saint-Pouanges Cavalerie

Origin and History

The regiment was created 6 January 1647, after the failure in front of Lerida, by Joseph d'Ardenne d'Aragon, Comte d'Illes. It was then placed under the command of the Viceroy of Catalonia.

In 1647, the regiment took part in the second siege of Lerida and in the capture of Ager; in 1648, in the reduction of Tortosa. It then garrisoned Barcelona until 1652, taking part in the defence of the place in 1650 and 1651.

In 1653, the regiment took part in the siege of Girona and in the combat of Bordils; and in 1654, in the capture of Villefranche and Puigcerdá. In 1655, it was at the camp of Quiers and at Solsone. In 1657, it was transferred to Italy. In 1658, it returned to Catalonia..

On 18 April 1661, the regiment was disbanded, only the mestre de camp company was kept.

On 1 April 1668, the regiment was briefly re-established in Metz and Gorze at four companies, to be reduced to its mestre de camp company on 14 May of the same year.

On 3 March 1672, on the eve of the Franco-Dutch War (1672-78), the regiment was once more re-established. It served in Flanders in 1672 and 1673. In 1674, it took part in the Battle of Seneffe before being transferred to Alsace where it fought in the combats of Entzheim and Mulhouse. In 1675, it captured 300 Brandenburger dragoons at Ruffach before being recalled to the Low Countries, where it participated in the capture of Huy and Limbourg. In 1676, it was at the capture of Condé, Bouchain and Valenciennes and in 1678, it fought in the Battle of Saint-Denis.

On 8 August 1679, the regiment was reduced to a single company, which was momentarily incorporated into Grignan Cavalerie.

On 15 January 1684, the regiment was briefly re-established until 26 September.

On 20 August 1688, at the outbreak of the Nine Years' War (1688-97), the regiment was definitively re-established and joined the Army of the Rhine before Philippsburg. In 1689, it was transferred to Flanders, where it fought in the Battle of Walcourt. In 1690, it took part in the Battle of Fleurus; in 1691, in the siege of Mons and in the Battle of Leuze; in 1692, in the siege of Namur and in the Battle of Steenkerque; in 1693, in the Battle of Landen and in the siege of Charleroi. From 1694 to 1697, the regiment was assigned to the guard of the coasts of Flanders. In 1697, the regiment campaigned on the Moselle.

In 1698, the regiment was at the camp of Compiègne.

At the beginning of the War of the Spanish Succession, the regiment counted 2 squadrons.

During the War of the Spanish Succession, the successive mestres de camp of the regiment were:

  • from 26 December 1696 to 1716: François-Gilbert Colbert, Marquis de Saint Pouange et de Chabanais (born in 1676, served with the Mousquetaires during the Nine Years' War)

Service during the War

In 1701, the regiment served in Germany.

In 1702, the regiment served once more in Germany. By 3 June, it was brigaded with Conflans Cavalerie. By mid-September, it was part of the army destined to join the Bavarian Army. On 14 October, its colonel distinguished himself in the Battle of Friedlingen.

In August and September 1703, the regiment was at the Siege of Alt-Breisach whose governor, de Marcilly, capitulated on 6 September. Then, in October and November, it took part in the Siege of Landau which hit abandoned to confront an Allied relief army led by the Prince of Hesse on 15 November in the Combat of Speyerbach. During this victorious battle, the regiment was posted on the right wing under Lieutenant-General de Locmaria. Two days later, the governor of Landau, the Count von Friesen, capitulated.

On 13 August 1704, the regiment was present at the disastrous Battle of Blenheim where it served under the command of Lieutenant-General de Zurlauben. Its colonel was immobilized in the village of Blenheim and taken prisoner. He was freed shortly afterwards.

In 1705, the regiment campaigned with the Army of the Moselle. On 26 October, the colonel of the regiment was promoted to brigadier.

In 1706, the regiment took part in the capture of Drusenheim, Lauterbourg and the Marquisat Island.

In 1707, under Villars, the regiment took part in the expeditions in Franconia and Swabia. On 22 July, it captured Marienthal by surprise.

In 1708, the regiment served with the Army of the Rhine.

In 1709, the regiment was transferred to the Army of Flanders. On 11 September, the regiment fought in the Battle of Malplaquet where it was part of the cavalry who charged under the command of Boufflers. The regiment suffered so heavy losses that it was not fit for duty any more.

In 1710, the regiment served in Franche -Comté.

In 1711, the regiment served once more in Franche-Comté.

In 1712, the regiment served on the Rhine.

In 1713, the regiment took part in the sieges of Landau and Freiburg and in the defeat of General Vaubonne.

In 1714, the regiment was at the camp on the Meuse.

Uniform

Our only sources are Colbert-Thurguis and Lemau de la Jaisse who, in 1721, mentioned that the uniform consisted of a white coat with red cuffs.

Troopers

Uniform in 1721- Source: Copyright Kronoskaf
all unknown details are in grey
Uniform Details as per Lemau de la Jaisse and Colbert-Thurguis
Headgear black tricorne laced white/yellow, with a black or white cockade fastened with a pewter or copper button
Neck stock white
Coat grey-white with red lining and pewter or copper buttons
Collar none
Shoulder straps no information available
Lapels none
Pockets none
Cuffs red, each with pewter or copper buttons
Turnbacks none
Waistcoat buckskin
Breeches buckskin
Leather Equipment
Bandolier natural leather edged white
Waistbelt natural leather worn above the coat
Cartridge Box no information found
Scabbard black leather with a white metal tip
Footgear black boots
Horse Furniture
Saddlecloth unknown
Housings unknown
Blanket roll unknown


Troopers were armed with a sword, a pistol and a carbine.

NCOs

no information found

Officers

no information found

Musicians

no information found

Standards

Saint-Pouanges Cavalerie Regimental Standard (reverse) – Copyright: Kronoskaf
Saint-Pouanges Cavalerie Regimental Standard (obverse) – Copyright: Kronoskaf

References

Colbert-Turguis, L. de: in Carnet de la sabretache 1937

Pajol, Charles P. V.: Les Guerres sous Louis XV, vol. VII, Paris, 1891, p. 339

Lemau de la Jaisse, P.: Abregé de la Carte Générale du Militaire de France, Paris, 1734, p. 145

  • Susane, Louis: Histoire de la cavalerie française, Vol. 2, J. Hetzel et Cie, Paris, 1874, pp. 138-145

N.B.: the section Service during the War is partly derived from our articles depicting the various campaigns, battles and sieges.

Acknowledgment

Jean-Pierre Loriot for the initial version of this article.