Hierarchical Path: War of the Spanish Succession (Main Page) >> Armies >> Austrian Army >> Salm Infantry
Origin and History
In 1682, Emperor Leopold I decided to increase his army by 6 new infantry regiments for a total of 12,000 men. Accordingly, on January 25, Colonel Sigmund Joachim Count Trautmannsdorf received a decree authorising him to raise an infantry regiment of 2,040 men. Recruitment took place in the districts of Prague, Königgrätz and Chrudim in Bohemia and Glatz in Silesia; and in the Bavarian cities of Regensburg, Augsburg, Nuremberg, Ulm, Nördlingen and Baireuth. Lieutenant-Colonel Franz Joachim von Strasser was chosen as first commander of the regiment. In July, the first four companies were reviewed in south Slovakia, five other companies remained in Bohemia. In September, Trautmannsdorf resigned as proprietor and the regiment was confided to FML Leopold Philipp Duke zur Salm.
At the beginning of 1683, five coys garrisoned Glogau/Silesia and five, Leopoldstadt (present-day Leopoldov/SK) and Trencsén (present-day Trenčín/SK).
In 1684, the entire regiment joined the Army of Karl von Lothringen at Parkány near Esztregom/HU. The regiment then fought in the Great Turkish War (1683-1699).
In 1690, during the Siege of Belgrade, the regiment suffered heavy losses. On October 8, a powder magazine exploded and, in the evening of the same day, a Turkish bomb destroyed the big tower containing powder reserve. Nearly 1,800 men of IR Salm, Auersperg and di Grana lost their life. The ranks of the regiment were replenished with soldiers from IR Chizola (5 coys) and IR Welsberg.
After the Great Turkish War, the regiment garrisoned Eperies (present-day Prešov/SK) and Bartfeld (present-day Bardejov/SK) with two battalions in the District of Marmaros.
By the time of the War of the Spanish Succession, the regiment probably counted four battalions.
During the War of the Spanish Succession, the proprietor of the regiment was:
- from 1682: Karl Theodor Otto Duke zu Salm, Wildgraf zu Dhaun und Kirburg (resigned from his charge at the beginning of 1710 and died in his castle on 10 November 1710)
- from 19 February 1711: Heinrich Johann Dietrich Martin Count von und zu Daun
The successive colonel-commanders during the War of the Spanish Succession were:
- from 1700: Anton Ägidius Jörger Baron Tollet (became proprietor of the former Marsigli Infantry in 1704)
- from 1704: Philipp Baron Langlet
- from 1716: Alexander Count von Erps
Service during the War
Until 1702, the regiment served in various places in Hungary.
In April 1702, at the beginning of the war, Lieutenant-Colonel Tollet concentrated the entire regiment (16 fusilier companies and one grenadier company) near Leopoldstadt (present-day Leopoldov/SK) and marched towards the Rhine River. On 30 July, the regiment reached Impflingen. In August and September, it participated in the Siege of Landau, where the fusilier companies were posted in the first line, and its grenadiers attached to the Reserve. After the surrender of Landau, one battalion took up its winter-quarters at Freiburg, and the three other battalions at Kenzingen an der Elz.
By 4 September 1703, the regiment (now only two battalions and one grenadier company) was stationed in Freiburg and counted 16 companies of about 60 men each for a total of approx. 1,000 men. During the next winter, the regiment was stationed in the Stollhofen Lines, near Ober-Bühl.
On 6 January 1704, Baron Jörger von Tollet was promoted to colonel, and Philipp Baron Langlet to lieutenant-colonel. On 15 May, the regiment was sent to Rottweil, where it arrived on 18 May. It then counted only 744 men (excluding grenadiers).
On 2 July, the regiment took part in the Battle of Schellenberg (aka Donauwörth) against the Franco-Bavarian army led by FM Arco. The two battalions of the regiment were deployed in the first line of the right wing along with the Imperial Baden Infantry, the Chur-Mainz Bibra Infantry and the Swabian Fuchs Infantry. The regiment suffered heavy losses: 3 officers and 43 men killed, 4 officers and 80 men wounded.
In August, the regiment was present during siege of Ingolstadt (Lieutenant-Colonel Langlet acted as trench-major). It later took part in the siege of Ulm.
In April 1705, six companies of the regiment (561 men) were sent to the army of Field Marshal Sigbert Heister operating in Hungary. These companies garrisoned Pressburg (present-day Bratislava/SK). On 27 April, Colonel Grumbach received orders to resupply the garrison of Trentschin. 700 men from the present regiment were part of the escort.
In July, the rest of the regiment was sent back to Hungary. Eleven companies were later posted along the March River near Pressburg to contain Rákoczy's rebels.
In August, Field Marshal Louis Bannerot Comte d’ Herbéviller was charged to resupply Leopoldstadt, which was blockaded by the Kurucs. He escorted a the supply convoy with 16 battalions (including 3 battalions of the present regiment). On 11 August, as he was returning from his mission, Herbéviller defeated a Kuruc corps in the Battle of Budmeritz and then resumed his retreat towards Ofen (present-day part of Budapest/HU).
The retreat was undertaken under very difficult conditions. The Kurucs burned up the fields and villages along the route of Herbéviller’s column, while the inhabitants fled into the forests. On 10 November, after resting his troops at Czegléd and Nagy-Körös, Herbéviller reached Schibo, where Rákóczi‘s main army was entrenched. On 11 November, Herbéviller decided to attack. During the ensuing Battle of Schibo all three battalions of the regiment were in the first line of the right wing. This wing attacked the entrenchments and the redoubt on the Kuruc left wing. One battalion of the present regiment stormed the redoubt, and slaughtered its defenders. Lieutenant-Colonel Baron Langlet was praised in d’Herbéviller’s report and afterwards promoted to colonel.
The regiment spent the winter in Transylvania, where it received 500 new recruits from Austria.
Throughout the campaign of 1706, the regiment was allocated to the corps of FM Count Rabutin. After the unsuccessful siege of Kaschau Rabutin went to Tokay, intending to return to Transylvania. However, he received orders to march to Ofen by way of Szolnok.
At the beginning of February 1707, Rabutin’s Corps reached Ofen. In the spring, the regiment received 250 recruits raised in Austria. After an exhausting march, Rabutin joined Starhemberg’s Corps near Raab (present-day Györ/HU). The present regiment (counting only 706 men, 6 companies under Major Alexander Count von Erps had been left behind to garrison Ofen) was allocated to Starhemberg’s Corps.
In 1708, the regiment marched to Northern Hungary where it joined FM Heister's Corps. On 2 August, it fought in the combat of Banowitz and, on 3 August, in the Battle of Trentschin.
In September, G.d.C Count Pálffy took command. The regiment took part in the unsuccessful siege of Neuhäusel. In October, 10 fusilier companies and the 2 grenadier companies were sent to Schemnitz (present-day Banská Štiavnica/SK), while the aforementioned 6 companies remained in Ofen.
At the beginning of 1709, one battalion of the regiment was posted along The Gran River (present-day Hron/SK). In April, the regiment (16 fusilier companies and one grenadier company) under direct command of FM Heister and took part in the expulsion of the Kurucs from the right bank of Danube River and, later, in their expulsion from the neighbourhood of Lake Balaton. After these actions 11 companies remained in field, while 6 others garrisoned Ofen.
At the end of the year, the regiment proprietor, Karl Otto Duke Salm, resigned from his function.
In 1710, 4 companies of the regiment garrisoned Schemnitz and 6 companies garrisoned Ofen while the remaining 6 fusilier companies and 1 grenadier company took part in the Siege of Neuhäusel (present-day Nové Zámky/SK).
After the death of Karl Otto Duke Salm in November 1710, Colonel Baron Langlet wanted to be appointed proprietor, but Prince Eugène de Savoie recommended to the Emperor Major-General Heinrich Josef Dietrich Martin von und zu Daun which got the relevant patent on 19 February 1711. According to an old agreement dating from 1709, the function of proprietor had been promised to Ludwig Otto zu Salm, but he was not interested and ceded the function to Count Daun for a sum of 20,000 fl. From then on, the regiment was designated as “Jung-Daun.”
Rákoczy's rebellion had now finally been quenched. From the 7 companies in the field, 5 went to Kaschau (present-day Košice/SK) and 2 to Erlau (present-day Eger/HU). On 1 August, the 4 companies from Schemnitz joined the two companies at Erlau, and the 6 companies garrisoning Ofen since 1708 also joined those stationed at Erlau. By the end of the year, 5 companies were garrisoning Kaschau and 12, Erlau.
The 12 companies at Erlau went to Eperies (present-day Prešov/SK), Leutschau (present-day Levoča/SK) and Bartfeld (present-day Bardejov/SK) where they remained until 1713.
A second grenadier company was created and one fusilier company disbanded. This second grenadier company garrisoned Tokay.
In June 1713, 5 fusilier companies and one grenadier company were sent to Prince Eugène's Army on the Rhine near Freiburg. At the end of September, Freiburg was besieged by the French led by Maréchal Villars. On October 14, the 6 companies of the regiment took part in sortie. On 16 November, after a heroic defence, the Imperial garrison surrendered. On 20 November, the garrison marched out of Freiburg “with military honour” to Villingen and Rottweil. During the siege, the 6 companies lost two officers killed and 50 men wounded. The wounded remained in Freiburg.
The remaining 11 companies spent the whole year in garrisons in Hungary.
In 1714, the entire regiment was reunited in Hungary.
|Coat||pearl grey lined red with yellow buttons on the right side and 1 yellow button on each side in the small of the back
|Waistcoat||red with yellow buttons|
|Stockings||red fastened under the knee with a natural leather strap|
|Gaiters||made of canvas and used only when the soldier wore linen breeches; in this case, the stockings were replaced by linen sox; the use of gaiters generalized much later|
Armaments consisted of a musket and a bayonet. Grenadiers were also armed with hand grenades.
According to Czegka, in 1716 the Hofkriegsrat enquiried to all regiments to know how to accoutre recruits with the proper uniform before sending them to their unit. For the present regiment, the following uniform is described:
- black tricorne lace white
- red neck stock
- pearl grey coat with red lining, cuffs with 2 brass buttons, and 6 brass buttons arranged 1-2-3
- red waistcoat with 24 small brass buttons
- red breeches
- pearl grey stockings
NCOs carried a spontoon (half-pike). They were also armed with a Stossdegen (a long two-edged estoc or rapier) carried in a black leather scabbard attached to the waist-belt.
NCOs of grenadier companies carried a flintlock musket instead of the spontoon.
NCOs also carried a cane whose characteristics indicated their precise rank. This cane had the length of a walking stick and was carried in and out of service. In action, to free hands, the cane was hanged to a button of the coat. Grenadier sergeants and fouriers were distinguished from privates by three silver braids on the bag of their bearskin.
Uniforms of officers were always of finer cloth than those of the privates.
Officers wore a black and yellow silk sash across the chest or around the waist.
Lieutenants of the grenadier companies were distinguished from privates and NCOs by four golden braids on the bag of their bearskin; captains by five golden braids on their bearskin.
Officers carried a partisan. The partisan was decorated with a tassel: gold for the colonel, gold with silver fringe for the lieutenant-colonel, gold and silken fringe for captains and silken fringe for lieutenants. In some regiments, the captains' tassel was entirely of silk; in this case the lieutenants' partisan had no tassel. The partisans of staff officers had gilt butt caps.
Officers were also armed with a Stossdegen (a long two-edged estoc or rapier) carried in a black leather scabbard attached to the waist-belt.
Officers carried a cane whose characteristics indicated their precise rank. This cane had the length of a walking stick and was carried in and out of service. In action, to free hands, the cane was hanged to a button of the coat.
Officers of grenadier companies carried a flintlock musket instead of the partisan. Captains, lieutenants and sergeants of these companies always had their bayonet affixed to their musket.
In the field, officers carried a pair of pistols.
Drummers and fifers wore coats with swallow nests,
The drum belt was usually brown and worn on the right shoulder.
no information found yet
Abtheilung für Kriegsgeschichte des k. k. Kriegs-Archives: Feldzüge des Prinzen Eugen von Savoyen, Series 1, Vol. 1, Vienna 1875, pp. 212-218, 222-227
Czegka, Eduard: Uniformen der kaiserlichen Infanterie unter Prinz Eugen. in: Zeitschrift für Heereskunde 49-51, 1933, pp. 459-473
Donath, Rudolf; Die Kaiserliche und Kaiserlich-Königliche Österreichische Armee 1618-1918, 2. Aufl., Simbach/Inn 1979
Pelet and François Eugène de Vault: Mémoires militaires relatifs à la Succession d'Espagne sous Louis XIV, Vol. 3 p. 911-912
Rabenhorst, A. Edler v.: Geschichte des K.u.K. Infanterie-Regimentes Prinz Friedrich August Herzog zu Sachsen Nr. 45, Brünn 1897
Seyfart, Kurzgefaßte Geschichte aller kaiserlich-königlichen Regimenter zu Pferde und zu Fuß, Frankfurth and Leipzig, 1762, p. 18
Harald Skala for the sections on its origin, history and service during the war.