Tallard, Camille d'Hostun de la Baume, Comte de
Tallard, Camille d'Hostun de La Baume, Comte de
French Brigadier (1677-1688), maréchal de camp (1688-1693), Lieutenant-General (1693-1703), Maréchal de France (1703-1728)
born 14 February 1652, Lyon, France
died 20 March 1728, Paris, France
Camille d'Hostun, born in 1652, was the son of Roger d'Hostun de La Baume, marquis de la Baume-d'Hostun et de Marie de Neufville-Villeroy.
Camille d'Hostun Comte de Tallard started his military career as guidon in the Gendarmes Anglais of the Gendarmerie de France.
In 1665, at the age of 13, Tallard became mestre-de-camp (colonel) of Royal-Cravates Cavalerie.
In 1672. at the outbreak of the Franco-Dutch War (1672–78), Tallard joined the army placed under the command of the Prince de Condé.
In 1674, Tallard served in Alsace under Turenne. On 11 August, Tallard distinguished himself in the Battle of Seneffe. He then received command of a corps which he led in the combats of Mulhaufein and Urchem.
In 1675 and 1676, Tallard campaigned in the Low Countries.
In 1677, Tallard was promoted to brigadier. The same year, he married Marie-Catherine de Grolée
In 1683, Tallard took part in the siege of Courtrai.
In 1684, Tallard was at the siege of Luxembourg.
In 1688, at the beginning of the Nine Years' War (1688–97), Tallard was promoted to maréchal de camp.
In 1691, Tallard took part in the pillage of Palatinate. He also took part in the siege of Ebersburg and in the attack of Rheinsfeld.
In 1693, Tallard was promoted to lieutenant-general.
Tallard was sent to London as ambassador for two years.
In 1701, at the outbreak of the War of the Spanish Succession, Tallard received command of a corps to conduct Operations in Germany. On 25 June, the Maréchal de Villeroy, appointed to command the Army of the Rhine, left Versailles and went to Metz where he met with M. de Tallard and made arrangements for the reinforcements (9 bns, 32 sqns) destined to the Moselle. At the beginning of July, Louis XIV ordered Tallard to assemble another French army on the Moselle. Accordingly, Villeroy sent 3 bns from Alsace to the Moselle where they would join 6 other bns to form Tallard's Corps on the Moselle. On 6 July, Tallard assembled his corps between Thionville and Sierck. His ovens were at Thionville. In August, when Villeroy was recalled to Versailles to receive command of the Army of Italy. Tallard replaced him as commander in Luxembourg. On 29 September, the king instructed Tallard to take his winter-quarters in Franche-Comté, Trois-Évêchés and Sedan in preparation to form the Army of the Rhine for the next campaign.
By 11 April 1702, Tallard's Corps occupied the Electorate of Cologne. On 29 April, Tallard with 8 bns and 12 sqns was sent towards Düsseldorf where the Allies had a bridge on the Rhine. On 5 May, it was resolved to reinforce Tallard's Corps at Düsseldorf with 12 sqns and 6 bns from Bonn under M. de Montrevel, and 6 sqns from Kempen under M. de Labadie. On 6 May, Tallard, now at the head of 14 bns and 30 sqns, advanced from Beckrath, passed the Niers at Odenkirchen and encamped at Heerdt opposite Düsseldorf. Tallard then gave orders to prepare five ways to get access to Kaiserwerth. Tallard was taking disposition to bombard Düsseldorf when the Allies declared that they would retaliate by bombarding Bonn. Boufflers instructed Tallard to abandon his design against Düsseldorf and to concentrate his attention on the siege works of the Allies around Kaiserwerth. On 9 May, Tallard's batteries, protected by 2 bns and 1 cavalry rgt, opened against the siege works at Kaiserwerth. Meanwhile, he steadily supplied the French garrison. In mid-May, Tallard continued to cannonade the Allied siege works from the left bank of the Rhine. He also threw 3 additional bns into Kaiserwerth, bringing its garrison to 8 bns. Around 8 June, Tallard managed to send 3 more bns and a detachment of 500 men as well as arms and ammunition into Kaiserwerth. On 9 June, Tallard was instructed to concentrate his corps at Rheinberg and to march to Kalkar to effect a junction with Bouffler's main army. In the night of 11 to 12 June, Tallard's cavalry marched from Kalkar to within 5 km of the main army and his infantry reached Kleve. On 14 June, the Duc de Bourgogne and Boufflers sent Tallard's Corps (15 bns, 34 sqns) towards Marienbaum, midway between Kleve and Rheinberg. The same day, the batteries of the Allied corps besieging Kaiserwerth opened. Since the departure of Tallard's army from this area on 9 June, the Allies had re-established their bridges at Düsseldorf and near Mülheim and transferred some troops to the left bank of the Rhine to occupy Tallard's former camp at Heerdt. On 16 June, Tallard marched from Marienbaum to Budberg, closer to Rheinberg. On 20 July, Tallard, having exhausted resources around Rheinberg, moved his infantry to a new camp near the monastery of Kamp, between Geldern and Rheinberg. On 26 July, Tallard threw 6 bns commanded by the Marquis de Grammont into Rheinberg. On 28 July, he marched from Kamp to Brüggen. On 1 August, Tallard (5 bns, 20 sqns) marched from Brüggen and encamped at 5 km on the left of the main Franco-Spanish army. On 3 August, Tallard retired to Halen. On 10 August, he encamped at Luyksgestel. In mid-September, Boufflers planned to detach Tallard towards Bonn with the instruction to make a junction with the troops of the Elector of Cologne (6 bns, 7 sqns) and then to make an attempt against Siegburg and to put Bergh country under contribution. On 18 September, Tallard's Corps (16 bns, 25 sqns and 12 field pieces) marched from Tongres by Aywaille, Vaux-Chavanne and Maldingen where he sojourned, waiting for his train. On 23 September, Tallard's train arrived at Maldingen in such a bad condition that he had to burn half of his carts and wagons before resuming his march towards Bonn by Schoppen, Reifferscheid, Kall and Miel. On 29 September, Tallard arrived at Miel near Bonn. He sent M. Filley with 150 horse and 200 foot to reconnoitre Siegburg. At the beginning of October, Tallard passed the Rhine, assembled a few boats and passed the Sieg with his entire corps and all the troops of the Elector of Cologne. However, he found that he could not lay siege to such a strong position as Siegburg without any mortar. On 3 October, Tallard, who had abandoned his project against Siegburg, marched to Bergheim. On 4 October, he encamped at Mulheim near Cologne. The elector joined him at this camp. Tallard sent detachments up to Düsseldorf to take hostages and put the Bergh country to contribution. On 5 October, Tallard reconnoitred Cologne and a few guns shot at him. Tallard then made himself master of the Castle of Lülsdorf, controlling the Rhine between Bonn and Cologne. On 8 October, Tallard signed a convention by which the city of Cologne would remain neutral. On 17 October, Boufflers sent orders to Tallard to come back to the Meuse after having taken measures to secure Bonn. Tallard, leaving a French garrison in Bonn, marched with his corps and the corps belonging to the Elector of Cologne towards Blankenheim. However, at Stadtkyll on his way to Bitburg, he received new orders from Louis XIV instructing him to march towards the Moselle where he would be joined by M. de Locmaria at the head of 10 bns and 12 sqns. After this junction, he would make himself master of Trier and of the Castle of Trarbach in the Palatinate, and put the Palatinate to contribution. However, Villars' victory at Friedlingen (14 October) soon made this diversion useless. Tallard then continued his march to the Moselle by Vianden and Luxembourg where the Elector of Cologne established himself. On 25 October, Tallard made himself master of Trier. On 27 October, he occupied Trarbach and invested the castle. On 1 November, he opened the trenches in front of the Castle of Trarbach. On 7 November, the garrison of Trarbach surrendered to Tallard. He then redirected his attention to Veldenz which he captured, taking its garrison prisoners. Tallard then put the electorates of Trier, Mainz and the Palatinate to contribution. Tallard then marched back to Metz with part of his troops, leaving the other part in good places along the Moselle. On 16 November, Tallard returned to Saarlouis with his cavalry while M. de Locmaria marched to Consarbruck (unidentified location) with his infantry. To prevent any Imperialist offensive in Lorraine, the French Court wanted to secure the city of Nancy even if the Duc de Lorraine refused to open its gates. On 29 November,Tallard sent 5 bns and 4 sqns to Toul; and 25 sqns to Vic-sur-Seil and Marsal. His artillery and ammunition were loaded on 100 boats who would move upstream on the Moselle. On 3 December, Tallard appeared in front of Nancy with 6 bns and 4 sqns and entered into the city unopposed. Charging M. d'Hautfort to command at Nancy, Tallard then returned to Metz.
On 14 January 1703, Tallard was promoted to maréchal de France. During the campaign on the Rhine, he forced the Allies to abandon the siege of the Castle of Trarbach. He then served under the command of the Duc de Bourgogne and, in September, took part in the capture of Breisach and, in October, in the Siege of Landau. On 15 November, Tallard won the Combat of Speyerbach, a victory who forced the capitulation of Landau.
In July 1704, Tallard was sent at the head of 34,000 men to reinforce the Bavarian army of Elector Maximilian II Emanuel on the Danube. On his way, he unsuccessfully laid siege to Villingen. On 5 August, he finally reached Ulm where he effected a junction with a Bavarian army. On 13 August, he commanded the French army at the disastrous Battle of Blenheim where he was taken prisoner. He was then sent to Great Britain where he was housed on parole in Nottingham till November 1711.
During his imprisonment, Louis XIV granted Tallard the Government of Franche-Comté.
In March 1712, Tallard became Duc d'Hostun.
In 1715, Tallard became Peer of France.
In 1717, Tallard became member of the Council of Regency but the Duc d'Orléans managed to have his nomination nullified.
In 1723, Tallard was admitted as honorary member of the Académie des sciences.
In 1724, Tallard was appointed president of the Académie des sciences.
In 1726, Tallard was appointed Minister of State.
Tallard died in Paris on 20 March 1728, at the age of 76 ans.
N.B.: the texts on the period extending from 1700 to 1702 are mostly derived from our articles depicting the various campaigns, battles and sieges.