Tercio Provincial Nuevo de Leon Amarillos Nuevos

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Hierarchical Path: War of the Spanish Succession (Main Page) >> Armies >> Spanish Army (Bourbon) >> Tercio Provincial Nuevo de Leon Amarillos Nuevos

Origin and History

As per a royal decree dated 20 January 1694, each province of Spain had to raise a provincial tercio of 1,000 men to reinforce the army. Accordingly, the Province of Leon raised the “Tercio Provincial Nuevo de Leon” which assembled in Coruña. It consisted of:

  • staff
    • 1 maestre de campo
    • 1 sargento mayor (major)
    • 1 capellan mayor (major chaplain)
    • 2 adjutants
    • 1 furriel mayor (major quartermaster)
    • 1 tambour mayor
    • 1 captain of campaign
    • 1 surgeon
  • 15 companies, each of:
    • 1 captain (to the exception of one company placed directly under the command of the maestre de campo
    • 1 page
    • 1 sergeant
    • 1 standard bearer
    • 1 drummer
    • soldiers

On 4 January 1695, the tercio embarked aboard the San Augustin and the Leon Blanco and was transported to the frontier of Navarra where it was assigned to the garrison of Pamplona. Soon afterwards, it marched to Catalonia where it took part in the blockade of Palamós before joining the garrison of Barcelona. In 1697, it took part in the defence of Barcelona who capitulated on 10 August.

After the Treaty of Ryswick, in 1698, the tercio assumed garrison duty in Barcelona but was soon transferred to Galicia.

By 1700, the tercio garrisoned Coruña. On 2 December, a company of grenadiers was formed.

In 1707, the tercio was transformed into a regiment designated as the “Regimiento de Leon”.

During the War of the Spanish Succession, the tercio was under the command of:

  • from 1694 to at least 1700: Don José Velez de Cosio
  • from 170?: Don Juan Fernandez de Aguirre
  • from at least 1707: Don Francisco Laso Palomino

Service during the War

In May 1703, the tercio was increased to 1,000 men. At the end of November, it set off from Coruña and marched towards Pontevedra where it joined the Army of Extremadura.

In 1704, the tercio formed part of the army assembled in Extremadura under the command of King Philip V for the planned invasion of Portugal. On 8 May, the tercio took part in the capture of Salvatierra where its grenadiers were part of the first attack. On 13 May, it was at the capture of Idanha-a-Nova under the command of Lieutenant-General Don José de Salazar. On 17 May, it took part in the conquest of Monsanto where its grenadiers, under the command of Captain Don Ambrosio Enriquez Cearrote, distinguished themselves. On 19 May, the tercio formed part of the detachment under the Marquis de Toy who laid siege to Castelo Branco which surrendered on 23 May. On 27 May, it fought in the attack of the entrenchments of the Allies near Sárcedas where a Dutch division under the Count of Athlone was routed and two Dutch battalions taken prisoners. In this action, Major Don Francisco Laso Palomino distinguished himself. On 29 May, when the Franco-Spanish army retired from Castelo Branco, the tercio escorted the baggage and passed by the bridge of Alcántara. On 11 June, it was surprised by the forces of the Marquis das Minas but was saved by the cavalry.

From 3 to 9 May, the tercio defended Alcántara but was taken prisoners when the place surrendered. It was escorted to Lisbon. In October, it was exchanged and marched to Badajoz and was then sent to Old Castile.

From March 1706, the tercio observed the Allied army who finally retired to Ciudad-Rodrigo.

In 1707, the tercio was transformed into a regiment designated as the “Regimiento de Leon”. It served once more on the frontier of Portugal under General Montenegro. On 18 February, he defeated an Anglo-Portuguese corps near Salamanca, forcing it to repass the bridge of Yecla and to abandon the siege of Alcañizas. The regiment then entered into Zamora. At the end of March, it set off from Zamora when the Count de San Juan presented himself in front of Alcañizas with a Allied force. San Juan immediately retired on Ciudad-Rodrigo and the regiment returned to Zamora. On 3 May, it set off for Salamanca where it relieved the Regimiento de Toro. On 12 September, the regiment advanced towards the frontier to take part in the siege of Ciudad-Rodrigo. On 4 October, it participated in the assault on this town.

In 1708, the regiment initially garrisoned Valencia de Alcántara. On 22 April, it set off from this place and marched to join the Army of Extremadura. In December, a detachment of the regiment took part in a raid conducted by General Don José de Armendariz, capturing Idanha-a-Nova, and storming and burning Monforte. The detachment then rejoined the rest of the regiment at Valencia de Alcántara.

In 1709, the regiment campaigned once more in Portugal. On 7 May, it took part in the Battle of La Gudiña. The two battalions were assigned to different brigades in the first line of the army.

In October 1710, a detachment of the regiment was assigned to the column of General Don José Antonio Montenegro who captured by surprise Miranda do Douro, taking 400 prisoners. The regiment then joined the army assembling at Plasencia and marched into New Castile. On 9 December, this army stormed Brihuega and, on 10 December, won a decisive victory at the Battle of Villaviciosa. The regiment was then sent back to the Army of Extremadura.

In 1711, the regiment garrisoned Ciudad-Rodrigo.

On 17 August 1713, the regiment was ordered to leave Ciudad-Rodrigo and to join the Army of Aragon.

In 1714, the regiment campaigned against the insurgents in Catalonia. A large part of the regiment was captured by a party led by the Caballero del Poal and brought to the Castle of Genebret where the soldiers were shot while the officers were brought to Cardona where they suffered gross outrages.

Uniform

On 30 December 1706, an Ordenanza de Infantería was published. It stipulated that all regular line infantry uniforms would now be white with the colour of the former uniform becoming the distinctive colour used for cuffs and waistcoat. On 28 February 1707, a royal decree reinforced this ordenanza. The new uniform were made in France, so it is very likely that some regiments had not received their new uniforms for the campaign of 1707. In fact, it seems that the officers and musicians of some regiment were still wearing the old uniform in 1707 at the Battle of Almansa, while the rank and file wore the new uniforms.

Privates

Uniform circa 1700 - Copyright Kronoskaf
Uniform Details as per
Picouet
Headgear
Musketeer black felt cocked hat laced white with a red cockade or broad brimmed hat turned up on one side or another
Grenadier no information found
Neckstock white
Coat yellow with blue lining and with tin buttons on the right side and 1 tin button on each side in the small of the back
Collar none
Shoulder Straps none
Lapels none
Pockets horizontal pockets, each with 3 tin buttons
Cuffs blue, each with 3 tin buttons
Turnbacks none
Waistcoat blue with tin buttons
Breeches yellow
Stockings blue fastened under the knee with a natural leather strap
Gaiters no information found
Leather Equipment
Crossbelt natural leather
Waistbelt natural leather
Cartridge Box natural leather
Bayonet Scabbard n/a
Scabbard black
Footwear black shoes with a brass buckle


Rank and file were armed with a sword, a bayonet and a musket

According to the Ordenanza de Infantería, from around 1707, the uniform of the regiment would be quite different with a white coat with yellow lining, yellow cuffs, white breeches and yellow stockings. However, the website Arre Caballo mentions that in 1707, the present regiment had white uniform with red as its distinctive colour.

Officers

Uniforms of officers differed from those of privates and NCOs by the finer material used. Their waistcoat, saddle cloth and housings were edged with a wide golden braid.

In the infantry, officers wore a silver or gold gorget and a spontoon.

The regulation of 30 December 1704 specified the distinctive of each military rank:

  • colonel: a baton with a gold knob
  • lieutenant-colonel: a baton with a silver knob
  • sargento mayor: a baton with a silver topped knob
  • captain: baton as worn under the reign of the Habsburg
  • lieutenant: baton as worn under the reign of the Habsburg
  • sub-lieutenant: baton with a horn band and a silver ring

NCOs

The regulation of 30 December 1704 specified the distinctive of each military rank:

  • sergeant : baton without knob and halberd
  • mariscal de logis (quartermaster): small white woolen epaulette
  • brigadier: swagger stick
  • corporal of squadron: swagger stick
  • second corporal of squadron (rank suppressed in 1706): swagger stick

Musicians

no information found yet

Colours

no information found yet

References

This article is mostly made of abridged and adapted excerpts from the following books which are now in the public domain:

  • Clonard, Conde de, Historia Orgánica de las Armas de Infantería y Caballería, vol. X, Madrid, 1851-62, pp. 322-331

Acknowledgement

Joseph O’Neill for the information on the new uniforms issued in 1707.