Tercio Provincial de Burgos Amarillos Viejos
Origin and History
The tercio was created for the war against Portugal on 22 January 1657 and confided to the Maestre de Campo Don Gerónimo de Benavente y Quiñones. It consisted of 26 companies for a total of 156 officers and 790 soldiers recruited in Madrid; and was known by the name of its maestre de campo.
In 1657, the new tercio rejoined the Army of Extremadura and took part in the siege and capture of Olivenza. In 1658, it participated in the defence of Badajoz and on 20 July, in the combat of Mayas against the Portuguese; in 1659, in the unsuccessful siege of Yelves; in 1661, in the siege and capture of Arronches and later in the defence of the place; in 1662, in a combat at Estremoz, in the siege and capture of Juromenha, in a combat near Villaciciosa, in the capture of Veiros and Monforte, and in the storming of Ocrato; in 1663, in the siege and capture of Evora. For its brave conduct, the tercio received the nickname of “Los Tigres” (the tigers).
In 30 August 1664, during the reorganisation of the Army of Extremadura, the tercio became one of the six tercios provinciales and was designated as the “Tercio provincial de Burgos”. It was also known as the “Amarillos Viejos”.
In 1665, the tercio served with the Army of Portugal and took part in the siege of Villaviciosa and in the battle of Montesclaros. In 1666, it defended the frontier the Hispano-Portuguese frontier. In 1668, at the end of the war against Portugal, the tercio was reduced from 17 to 9 companies and garrisoned Pamplona, Fuenterrabia and San Sebastian.
In 1672, at the outbreak of the Franco-Dutch War (1672–78), the tercio was transferred to the Army of Catalonia. In 1674, the tercio took part in the siege of Bellegarde in Roussillon and in the battle of Maurellas. In 1678, it defended Puigcerdà and capitulated with the honours of war.
In 1684, the tercio took part in the defence of Gerona against the French. In 1687, it fought once more against the French in the mountains.
In 1689, during the Nine Years' War (1688–97), the tercio took part in the siege of Camprodon. In 1690, it garrisoned Gerona. In 1694, it joined the Army of Catalonia and took part in the battle of the Tech River and in the defence of Palamós which surrendered as prisoners of war. In 1696, these prisoners were exchanged. In 1697, the tercio took part in the defence of Barcelona which surrendered on 10 August. The tercio then marched to Martorell.
After the war, the tercio formed part of the garrison of Barcelona.
During the War of the Spanish Succession, the tercio was under the command of:
- from at least 1689: Don Fernando Dávila (aka d'Avila) appointed governor of Badajoz in 1701, promoted to maréchal de camp in 1705, died in 1710
- from 1698: Don Geronimo Perez de Nueros y Pueyo
- from 15 September 1701: Joaquin Fernandez Portocarrero Marquis de Almenara (1681-1760) promoted to lieutenant-general of cavalry in Catalonia in 1703; abandoned the military career and became member of a religious order, renouncing to his titles
- from 19 April 1703: Don Antonio Pacheco y Villegas appointed governor of Badajoz in 1705; promoted to maréchal de camp in 1709; served with the Army of Extremadura
- from 23 August 1705 to 31 May 1718: Nicola Antonio (Colantonio) Carraciolo (1682-1736), 5th Marquis de Torrecuso, Duke de San Giorgio, Prince de Campania, Grandee of Spain started his military career in the Fijo de Naples Regiment in 1702
On 28 February 1707, the former “Tercio Provincial de Burgos Amarillos Viejos” was transformed into a regiment and took the name of “Regimiento de Guadalajara”.
Service during the War
In 1701, the tercio was initially destined to reinforce the Army of Naples. However, the order was cancelled because because it became necessary to keep loyal troops in Spain to contain the supporters of the Habsburg dynasty.
In 1702, the tercio was at Barcelona when it received orders to march for Galicia because the region might be threatened by an Anglo-Dutch fleet. On 3 October, it set off for Galicia.
In 1703, the tercio served on the frontier with Portugal.
In 1704, when King Philip V decided to take command of the Army of Extremadura for the planned invasion of Portugal, the tercio was ordered to join this army. On 22 April, as the tercio passed by Madrid, the Comisario General de la Infanteria presented it to the queen at the Royal Palace. On 18 May, it reached the camp of Monsanto. It was immediately sent to reinforce the corps under the General Marquis de Toy who was besieging Castelo Branco. The arrival of the tercio in front of Castelo Branco was the signal for a decisive attack. While six artillery pieces thundered against the walls and the grenadier companies deployed to draw the attention of the defenders, the tercio advanced under a terrible fire, knocked down the door of the main gate with axes, made itself master of the inner entrenchments and forced the Portuguese garrison to take refuge into the castle. On 23 May, the garrison of the Castle of Castelo Branco surrendered. The Dutch General Fagel, when informed of the surrender of the place, retired to Sarceda with his troops, leaving a Dutch brigade in the mountains near Ferreira. This brigade immediately entrenched itself. On the night of 27 May, the tercio passed the Alvito River and attacked two Dutch battalions posted on the right of these entrenchments, seizing the post and taking 800 prisoners. On 29 May, it formed part of the column under the command of the Marquis de Toy who marched from Andoico, escorting the baggage and the train of artillery. It passed the Tagus on a bridge of boats and reached the camp of General Pedro Ronquillo, conducting a diversion during the main attack on Castelo de Vide. On 11 June, that division was attacked by a force under the Marquis Das Minas. The Spanish cavalry delayed the advance of the Allies allowing the tercio to take positions which it held until nightfall. It then retired to La Zarza. In July, the tercio remained cantoned at La Zarza. Early in August, it was ordered to march to Gibraltar. Upon its arrival at Gibraltar, it incorporated a company who had formerly defended Ora. At that time, the tercio counted only 500 men. Captain Don Isidro de Quiñones, who was commanding the depot of the tercio in Catalonia, proposed to raise a second battalion. On 30 August, the king authorised the creation of this second battalion which would be raised in Aragon and Valencia.
On 24 April 1705, the poorly designed siege works and the recent arrival of Allied reinforcements forced the Franco-Spanish army besieging Gibraltar to abandon the siege. The tercio was sent to the Province of Extremadura where it garrisoned Badajoz. In June, the tercio was sent to Alcántara, threatened by the Allies.
On 9 April 1706, an Allied force appeared in front of Alcántara. When the breaches became practicable, the governor of the place capitulated and the tercio became prisoners of war and transferred to Lisbon. In October, the entire tercio was exchanged and returned to Old Castile. On 10 December, it received orders to march to the village of Fuencarral where it would be reorganised.
On 28 February 1707, the former “Tercio Provincial de Burgos Amarillos Viejos” was transformed into a regiment and took the name of “Regimiento de Guadalajara”. It then joined the army assembling in Chinchilla and the surrounding villages where it was brigaded with the regiments of Placencia, Salamanca and Jaen under Brigadier Don José de Chaves. This brigade was deployed in the second line of the army. On 25 April, the regiment took part in the Battle of Almansa. On 2 May, as part of d'Asfeld's Division, it participated in the recapture of Requena and in the siege of Játiva which surrendered on 25 May. On 11 June, as part of the army of the Maréchal de Berwick, the regiment passed the Ebro at Caspe and took position in Rubielos to contain insurgent troops operating in Aragon. It joined the garrison of Moya for an attack on the Heights of Linares. It then stormed Villahermosa and took position in the confines of the Provinces of Aragon and Valencia, establishing its headquarters in Teruel. The regiment later joined the division of General d'Arennes and took part in the siege and capture of Mequinenza. On 5 October, the regiment distinguished itself in the attack of Escalona. It hen joined the main body of the army at Lérida. On 11 November, the place of Lérida was invested. It was then redirected to the Province of Valencia to recapture the place of Morella. On 12 December, the place surrendered and the regiment formed part of its garrison.
In 1708, the regiment set off from Morella and joined the corps of General d'Asfeld who surprised Mora on the Ebro, defeated the Allies at Marvete and attacked entrenchments defended by the Allies on the road to Tortosa. The regiment then took part in the siege of Tortosa which surrendered on 10 July. It then retired to the Province of Valencia with d'Asfeld's Corps while the main army retired to Lérida with the Duc d'Orléans.
By 9 July 1709, the second battalion of the regiment was finally completed and the two battalions marched to Catalonia with d'Asfeld's Corps while the grenadiers remained on the coast of the Province of Valencia. The two battalions took part in actions at Balaguer and against the Lines of the Segre.
In 1710, the regiment (to the exception of its grenadiers) was operating in Catalonia. As the Allied army had been considerably augmented, Philip V retired from Catalonia to Aragon. The regiment was among the units who covered the retreat. On 20 August, it took part in the disastrous Battle of Saragossa. The remnants of the regiment took the road of Soria and cantoned in various villages of Old Castile where the regiment was brought back to full strength and received new uniforms and new equipment. It then marched to Placencia where the king reviewed it on 15 October. The regiment was posted on the Tagus, encamping at Casa-Tejada near the Point of Almaráz. On 9 December, it took part in the combat of Brihuega and, on 10 December, in the decisive Combat of Villaviciosa, pursuing the Allies up to the banks of the Cinca. It then took its winter-quarters.
On 6 July of the same year (1710), taking advantage of the absence of most Franco-Spanish troops from the Province of Valencia, an Anglo-Dutch fleet of 40 sail had managed to land a few hundreds men at Vinaròs. On 7 July, the Spanish Governor de Peñiscola had assembled his troops (the grenadiers of the regiment along with detachments from Ordenes Nuevo Cavalry and Málaga Cavalry) and had driven back the Allies, forcing them to-re-embark.
In 1711, after the surrender of the Fortress of Gerona, on 25 January, the regiment escorted the Austrian garrison to Navarre. On its way to rejoin the army, it drove the Allies out of their fortified positions on the Point of Algerri. In this action, a standard bearer, Don Gabriel Quirós, distinguished himself when he marched in front of the regiment with flying colour during the assault. The regiment terminated the campaign in the Lines of Prats del Rey.
In 1713, the regiment took part in the blockade of Barcelona.
In 1714, the regiment took part in the siege of Barcelona who surrendered on 11 September.
On 30 December 1706, an Ordenanza de Infantería was published. It stipulated that all regular line infantry uniforms would now be white with the colour of the former uniform becoming the distinctive colour used for cuffs and waistcoat. On 28 February 1707, a royal decree reinforced this ordenanza. The new uniform were made in France, so it is very likely that some regiments had not received their new uniforms for the campaign of 1707. In fact, it seems that the officers and musicians of some regiment were still wearing the old uniform in 1707 at the 1707-04-25 – Battle of Almansa, while the rank and file wore the new uniforms.
|Coat||yellow with blue lining and with tin buttons on the right side and 1 tin button on each side in the small of the back
|Waistcoat||blue with tin buttons|
|Stockings||blue fastened under the knee with a natural leather strap|
|Gaiters||no information found|
Rank and file were armed with a sword, a bayonet and a musket
According to the Ordenanza de Infantería, from around 1707, the uniform of the regiment would be quite different with a white coat with yellow lining and yellow cuffs.
Uniforms of officers differed from those of privates and NCOs by the finer material used. Their waistcoat, saddle cloth and housings were edged with a wide golden braid.
In the infantry, officers wore a silver or gold gorget and a spontoon.
The regulation of 30 December 1704 specified the distinctive of each military rank:
- colonel: a baton with a gold knob
- lieutenant-colonel: a baton with a silver knob
- sargento mayor: a baton with a silver topped knob
- captain: baton as worn under the reign of the Habsburg
- lieutenant: baton as worn under the reign of the Habsburg
- sub-lieutenant: baton with a horn band and a silver ring
The regulation of 30 December 1704 specified the distinctive of each military rank:
- sergeant : baton without knob and halberd
- mariscal de logis (quartermaster): small white woolen epaulette
- brigadier: swagger stick
- corporal of squadron: swagger stick
- second corporal of squadron (rank suppressed in 1706): swagger stick
In 1707 and 1708, the colonels of infantry regiments were allowed to outfit the musicians of their respective regiments in their own livery.
no information found yet
This article is mostly made of abridged and adapted excerpts from the following books which are now in the public domain:
- Clonard, Conde de, Historia Orgánica de las Armas de Infantería y Caballería, vol. IX, Madrid, 1851-62, pp. 255-279
Joseph O’Neill for the information on the new uniforms issued in 1707.