Tercio Provincial de Valladolid Verdes Viejos

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Hierarchical Path: War of the Spanish Succession (Main Page) >> Armies >> Spanish Army (Bourbon) >> Tercio Provincial de Valladolid Verdes Viejos

Origin and History

On 20 August 1663, during the Portuguese Restoration War (1640–1668), the king of Spain created the "Tercio de Portugal" in the city of Badajoz from troops of the former Portuguese tercios who had remained loyal to him. On 31 May 1665, the tercio was renamed “Tercio Provincial de Valladolid”. In 1666, it remained on the defensive on the frontier of Extremadura. In 1667, it garrisoned Albuquerque. On 27 August 1668, it was reduced to nine companies.

In 1672, during the Franco-Dutch War (1672–78), the tercio marched to Catalonia where it joined the Army of Rosellon (Roussillon). In 1674, the tercio took part in the capture of Maureillas and Ceret and in an engagement near Maureillas. In 1675, it defended Puigcerdà. In 1677, it campaigned in Roussillon.

In 1684, the tercio garrisoned Pamplona in Catalonia.

In 1690, during the Nine Years' War (1688–97), the tercio left Pamplona, joined the Army of Catalonia and entered into Barcelona from where it was transported to Rosas aboard galleys. In 1692, it left Rosas and joined the army of the Baron de Preux who invaded the region of Cerdanya. And took part in operations at Pont-de-Molins. In 1693, the tercio defended Rosas who capitulated on 10 June. In 1694, it took part in the Battle of Torroella and in the defence of Palamós where it surrendered as prisoners of war. The same year, the tercio was designated as the “Tercio de Verdes Viejos”. In 1696, it was exchanged and returned to Barcelona. In 1697, it took part in the defence of Barcelona which capitulated on 10 August and the tercio retired to Martorell with the honours of war. On 23 August, the tercio counted 488 men (including staff) in 15 companies. Five of these companies were sent to Melilla on the coast of North Africa to garrison the place.

In 1700, the tercio was stationed in Catalonia and the five companies previously operating in North Africa returned to Cádiz. These companies were destined to a naval expedition under the command of Admiral Don Pedro Fernandez de Navarrete against the Scottish establishments on the Isthmus of Darien (present-day Panama). However, the expedition was cancelled and the five companies remained as garrison in Cádiz.

On 28 February 1707, the tercio was transformed into a regiment designated as the “Regimiento de Córdoba”.

During the War of the Spanish Succession, the tercio was under the command of:

  • from 20 June 1698: Don Francisco de Luna y Cárcamo
  • from 24 November 1701: Don Diego de Avila (aka Dávila)
  • from 30 August 1707 to 31 July: 1715 Don Pedro Rui-Perez de Orduña

On 20 April 1715, the regiment incorporated the disbanded “Regimiento de Alcántara”.

On 1 February 1718, the regiment was renamed “Regimiento de España”.

Service during the War

In 1701, the tercio marched from Catalonia to join its five companies posted at Cádiz.

In 1702, the tercio was cantoned at the port of Santa Maria near Cádiz. The Spanish forces around Cádiz were under the command of the Captain-General Marquis de Villadarias. At the end of August a large Anglo-Dutch amphibious force arrived to lay siege to Cádiz. On 26 August, the Anglo-Dutch disembarked troops in the Cove of Cañuelos. The tercio took part in all operations until the enemy decided to abandon the siege and to retire. The tercio was then assigned to the garrison of Cádiz to the exception of 7 companies who were sent to Galicia.

In the Spring of 1704, the tercio marched to Madrid. On 22 April, it was reviewed by the queen. It then joined the Army of Extremadura under the General Marquis de Thoy for the war against Portugal. On 19 May, the tercio marched from Monsanto and laid siege to Castelo Branco. On 23 May, it took part in the attack of this place. On 28 May, it fought in an action at Sárceda where the enemy was routed. After the capture of Castelo Branco, it encamped at Andoyco. It then passed the Tagus and joined the corps of General Ronquillo who was operating in the Province of Beira against the Allied corps of Das Minas as a diversion while the king was laying siege to Castelo de Vide. On 11 June, the tercio fought in an engagement at Monsanto. When the army retired during the night, the tercio divided in two detachments covered its retreat. The first detachment then took refuge in Alcántara and the second in Salvatierra. At the end of the campaign, the tercio was assigned to the garrison of Albuquerque where it was reorganised as a regiment. The same year, the five companies who had garrisoned Cádiz took part in the siege of Gibraltar. They were then sent to Badajoz.

In 1705, the seven companies garrisoning Albuquerque defended the place until 22 May when the place capitulated. The companies were allowed to retire to Badajoz where they joined the rest of the unit. The entire tercio then advanced on Lobon to join the army commanded by the Maréchal de Tessé.

In 1706, the first battalion defended Alcántara which was besieged from 10 April. On 17 April, this battalion became prisoners of war when the place surrendered. It was sent to Lisbon. Meanwhile, the second battalion had marched to Old Castile where, assisted by local militia, it protected the frontier. From Salamanca, it advanced to Orbaz. It was soon joined by armed peasants at the bridge of Baños. Together, they routed a Portuguese cavalry regiment commanded by Don Angel de Mendoza, taking the entire unit prisoners (including the Marquis das Minas' grandson). When the first battalion was finally exchanged, the entire unit was reunited at Fuencarral near Madrid where it was reorganised.

On 28 February 1707, the tercio was transformed into a regiment designated as the “Regimiento de Córdoba”. The regiment joined the Army of New Castile where it was brigaded with Bajeles, Zamora and Armada under its colonel, Don Diego Dávila. On 25 April, the regiment took part in the Battle of Almansa, where it lost its colonel. The regiment then pursued the Allies up to the Province of Valencia. On 30 August, the king appointed Don Pedro Rui-Perez de Orduña as the new colonel of the regiment.. On 26 December, the regiment marched under the command of the Count de Mahony to lay siege to Alcoy.

On 1 January 1708, Mahony's Corps opened trenches in front of Alcoy which surrendered on 10 January. This corps then guarded fortified posts of the military district of Valencia. Several detachments were sent against the insurgents.

In 1713, the regiment was assigned to the Army of Catalonia who blockaded Barcelona. It was then detached to fight the migueletes It took part in the attack on Bagá which was defended by 300 insurgents. It overwhelmed and destroyed them completely.

In 1714, the regiment remained in Catalonia until the beginning of the siege of Barcelona. On the night of 16 to 17 June, it opened the trench in front of the city. It continued siege works until the final assault on 11 September where it served as a reserve with the 11 battalions located in the Bellegarde Battery. On 7 November, its colonel, Don Pedro Rui-Perez de Orduña, was appointed as subaltern commander of the place of Ceuta.

Uniform

On 30 December 1706, an Ordenanza de Infantería was published. It stipulated that all regular line infantry uniforms would now be white with the colour of the former uniform becoming the distinctive colour used for cuffs and waistcoat. On 28 February 1707, a royal decree reinforced this ordenanza. The new uniform were made in France, so it is very likely that some regiments had not received their new uniforms for the campaign of 1707. In fact, it seems that the officers and musicians of some regiment were still wearing the old uniform in 1707 at the Battle of Almansa, while the rank and file wore the new uniforms.

Privates

Uniform circa 1700 - Copyright Kronoskaf
Uniform Details as per
Picouet
Headgear
Musketeer black felt cocked hat laced white with a red cockade or broad brimmed hat turned up on one side or another
Grenadier no information found
Neckstock white
Coat green with red lining and with tin buttons on the right side and 1 tin button on each side in the small of the back
Collar none
Shoulder Straps none
Lapels none
Pockets horizontal pockets, each with 3 tin buttons
Cuffs red, each with 3 tin buttons
Turnbacks none
Waistcoat red with tin buttons
Breeches red
Stockings red fastened under the knee with a natural leather strap
Gaiters no information found
Leather Equipment
Crossbelt natural leather
Waistbelt natural leather
Cartridge Box natural leather
Bayonet Scabbard n/a
Scabbard black
Footwear black shoes with a brass buckle


Rank and file were armed with a sword, a bayonet and a musket

According to the Ordenanza de Infantería, from around 1707, the uniform of the regiment would be quite different with a white coat with green lining, green cuffs and green stockings.

Officers

Uniforms of officers differed from those of privates and NCOs by the finer material used. Their waistcoat, saddle cloth and housings were edged with a wide golden braid.

In the infantry, officers wore a silver or gold gorget and a spontoon.

The regulation of 30 December 1704 specified the distinctive of each military rank:

  • colonel: a baton with a gold knob
  • lieutenant-colonel: a baton with a silver knob
  • sargento mayor: a baton with a silver topped knob
  • captain: baton as worn under the reign of the Habsburg
  • lieutenant: baton as worn under the reign of the Habsburg
  • sub-lieutenant: baton with a horn band and a silver ring

NCOs

The regulation of 30 December 1704 specified the distinctive of each military rank:

  • sergeant : baton without knob and halberd
  • mariscal de logis (quartermaster): small white woolen epaulette
  • brigadier: swagger stick
  • corporal of squadron: swagger stick
  • second corporal of squadron (rank suppressed in 1706): swagger stick

Musicians

no information found yet

Colours

no information found yet

References

This article is mostly made of abridged and adapted excerpts from the following books which are now in the public domain:

  • Clonard, Conde de, Historia Orgánica de las Armas de Infantería y Caballería, vol. X, Madrid, 1851-62, pp. 33-81

Acknowledgement

Joseph O’Neill for the information on the new uniforms issued in 1707.