Tercio de Idiaquez

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Hierarchical Path: War of the Spanish Succession (Main Page) >> Armies >> Spanish Army (Bourbon) >> Tercio de Idiaquez

Origin and History

The tercio was created in Galicia on 1 July 1643 and its first Maestre de Campo was Don Fernando Valladares y Sarmiento. It initially counted 1,000 men in 11 companies. Until 1715, the tercio was designated by the name of its successive Maestres de Campo.

In May 1657, the tercio joined the army assembling in Celanova near the Portuguese frontier under the command of Captain-General Don Vincente Gonzaga. On 5 May, this corps marched into Portugal and defeated the Portuguese vanguard. It then advanced on the towns of Monção and Salvaterra de Miño and, on 7 May, invested Valença but lifted the siege on 9 May. The tercio then garrisoned Tui thus covering the forts of Aytona and Fillaboa. In 1658, the tercio took part in the campaign of Portugal; in 1659, in the siege and capture of Monção, in an engagement near Peneda, and in the siege and capture of Salvaterra de Miño; in 1661, in an unsuccessful siege of Salvaterra de Miño. In 1662, it campaigned once more against Portugal and garrisoned Monção and Salvaterra de Miño. By 1665, it was still garrisoning places on the Portuguese frontier.

In 1666, the tercio was transferred to Galicia. In 1668, it was increased to 15 companies and marched to Vigo where on 15 May it embarked for the Spanish Netherlands and landed at Ostend.

In April 1672, at the outbreak of the Franco-Dutch War (1672–78), the tercio was transferred from the garrison of Ostend to Bruges. In 1674, it took part in the battle of Seneffe and in the unsuccessful siege of Oudenarde; in 1676, in a failed attempt to relieve Bouchain. In 1677, it reinforced the garrison of Bruxelles. In 1678, it was transferred from Bruxelles to Bruges.

In 1684, the tercio defended Bruges which surrendered on 6 June.

In 1688, at the outbreak of the Nine Years' War (1688–97), the tercio was garrisoning Bruges. In 1690, it took part in the battle of Walcourt; in 1690, in the battle of Fleurus; in 1691, in the defence of the lines between Peer and Bois-le-Duc and in the defence of Charleroi before garrisoning Mons; in 1692, in the defence of Namur. In 1693, the tercio incorporated troops from several disbanded units. The same year, it was at the battle of Landen; in 1695 in the attack against Bossu and in the siege of Namur.

During the War of the Spanish Succession, the tercio was under the command of:

  • from 1699: Don Juan de Idiaquez (promoted to Sargento Major of the Guardias de Corps in 1704)
  • from 1704: Prince de Ligny
  • from 1710 to 1715: Prince Claudio de Ligny

In 1715, the tercio became the “Regimiento de Toro”.

Service during the War

In 1702, the tercio took part in the defence of Kayserwerth which was invested by the Prince of Nassau on 16 April. On 19 April, the trenches were opened. On 1 May, the Allies stormed an outwork. On 9 June, they took position in the covert way. On 15 June, the garrison capitulated with the honours of war. The tercio then joined the army of the Louis de France|Duc de Bourgogne]]. It was later sent to Landau. After the capitulation of Landau, it rejoined the army of the Duc de Bourgogne once more.

From 25 February to 9 March 1703, the tercio, under the command of the Marquis de Bedmar, took part in the siege and capture of Kehl. It then rejoined the army of the Duc de Bourgogne who laid siege to Alt-Breisach. After the surrender of the place, the tercio was sent to the Lines of Stollhofen under the command of the Marquis de Blainville. In November, it was present at the siege of Landau.

N.B.: Clonard pretends that the tercio was at the Combat of Speyerbach but the detailed order of battle does not list the regiment.

In 1704, Idiaquez was promoted to Sargento Major of the Reales Guardias de Corps and the Prince de Ligny succeeded him at the head of the tercio. On 13 August, it fought in the Battle of Blenheim. After the retreat, it wasn thrown into Namur which was bombarded by Lord Overkirk.

From 28 May to 10 June 1705, the tercio, under the command of the Comte de Gasse, took part in the siege and capture of Huy. It then took position in the Lines of Brabant. On 18 July, it was attacked and forced to retire to Betlehem and then to Louvain. Afterwards, it joined the garrison of Antwerp.

In 1706, Antwerp capitulated and the tercio was allowed to rejoin the Franco-Spanish army.

On 11 July 1708, the tercio took part in the Battle of Oudenarde. It later participated in the siege of Anquenau and fought, on 28 September, in the Engagement of Wijnendale.

On 10 February 1710, the tercio set off from the Spanish Netherlands for Spain and arrived in Navarre under the command of its Maestro de Campo Prince Claudio Ligny (not to be confused with the former commander of the tercio). The unit was too exhausted to take part in the present campaign. A second battalion was formed from the former Regimiento de Pamplona.

In 1713, the tercio was transferred to Catalonia.

In 1714, the tercio joined the army assembled for the siege of Barcelona under the command of the Mar/chal de Berwick. On 5 August, along with the Reales Guardias Valonas, it drove back a sortie of the garrison. After the capture of Barcelona, the tercio remained in the place as garrison.

Uniform

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Privates

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Officers

Uniforms of officers differed from those of privates and NCOs by the finer material used. Their waistcoat, saddle cloth and housings were edged with a wide golden braid.

In the infantry, officers wore a silver or gold gorget and a spontoon.

The regulation of 30 December 1704 specified the distinctive of each military rank:

  • colonel: a baton with a gold knob
  • lieutenant-colonel: a baton with a silver knob
  • sargento mayor: a baton with a silver topped knob
  • captain: baton as worn under the reign of the Habsburg
  • lieutenant: baton as worn under the reign of the Habsburg
  • sub-lieutenant: baton with a horn band and a silver ring

NCOs

The regulation of 30 December 1704 specified the distinctive of each military rank:

  • sergeant : baton without knob and halberd
  • mariscal de logis (quartermaster): small white woolen epaulette
  • brigadier: swagger stick
  • corporal of squadron: swagger stick
  • second corporal of squadron (rank suppressed in 1706): swagger stick

Musicians

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Colours

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References

This article is mostly made of abridged and adapted excerpts from the following books which are now in the public domain:

  • Clonard, Conde de, Historia Orgánica de las Armas de Infantería y Caballería, vol. IX, Madrid, 1851-62, pp. 213-230