Difference between revisions of "Tercio de Valencia"

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(Created page with "<small>Hierarchical Path: War of the Spanish Succession (Main Page) >> Armies >> Spanish Army (Bourbon) >> {{PAGENAME}}</small> ==Orig...")
 
(Added uniform plate)
 
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==Service during the War==
 
==Service during the War==
After the change of dynasty, the tercio was not required before 12 January 1704 when Don Francisco de Mora y Perea became its “maestre de campo”. It was attached to the Army of Andalucia. In March, it joined the garrison of Cádiz. However, it was soon recalled to take part in the siege of Gibraltar. On 18 September, it was transformed into a regiment counting two battalions. On 21 October it opened the trenches in front of Gibraltar. On 11 November, it took part in an unsuccessful assault.
+
After the change of dynasty, the tercio was not required before 12 January 1704 when Don Francisco de Mora y Perea became its “maestre de campo”. It was attached to the Army of Andalucia. In March, it joined the garrison of Cádiz. However, it was soon recalled to take part in the [[1704 – Siege of Gibraltar|Siege of Gibraltar]]. On 18 September, it was transformed into a regiment counting two battalions. On 21 October it opened the trenches in front of Gibraltar. On 11 November, it took part in an unsuccessful assault.
  
 
On 2 May 1705, the siege of Gibraltar was raised and the regiment joined the Army of Valencia which captured Ayora, Alcira, Alguás and Bocairente before going to Extremadura. The regiment then took part in the invasion of Portugal, in the burning of Monforte and in the capture of the Castle of Nodar y San Aleixo. It then retired to Cádiz.
 
On 2 May 1705, the siege of Gibraltar was raised and the regiment joined the Army of Valencia which captured Ayora, Alcira, Alguás and Bocairente before going to Extremadura. The regiment then took part in the invasion of Portugal, in the burning of Monforte and in the capture of the Castle of Nodar y San Aleixo. It then retired to Cádiz.
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In 1706, a detachment of the regiment was sent to Melilla on the coast of North Africa. The rest of the regiment was assigned to the Army of Extremadura.. It was then sent to reinforce the troops operating in New Castile and advanced on Requena which it defended from 5 to 10 June when it became prisoners of war. On 4 October, its grenadiers took part in the reconquest of Cuenca.
 
In 1706, a detachment of the regiment was sent to Melilla on the coast of North Africa. The rest of the regiment was assigned to the Army of Extremadura.. It was then sent to reinforce the troops operating in New Castile and advanced on Requena which it defended from 5 to 10 June when it became prisoners of war. On 4 October, its grenadiers took part in the reconquest of Cuenca.
  
In 1707, the colonel, a few officers and several men managed to escape from captivity. In March, the two battalions of the regiment were reorganised in Extremadura. They were then sent to Castile. On 25 April, the regiment took part in the Battle of Almansa. It then took part in the reconquest of Onteniente and Elche before rejoining a corps who retired to Extremadura. In June, it participated in the blockade of Olivenza, in the attacks on Serpa and Moura.It then took part in the  siege of Ciudad Rodrigo from 20 September to 4 October when the place surrendered. On 7 October, its name of “Regimiento de Valencia” was confirmed.
+
In 1707, the colonel, a few officers and several men managed to escape from captivity. In March, the two battalions of the regiment were reorganised in Extremadura. They were then sent to Castile. On 25 April, the regiment took part in the [[1707-04-25 – Battle of Almansa|Battle of Almansa]]. It then took part in the reconquest of Onteniente and Elche before rejoining a corps which retired to Extremadura. In June, it participated in the blockade of Olivenza, and in the attacks on Serpa and Moura. It then took part in the  [[1707 – Siege of Ciudad Rodrigo|Siege of Ciudad Rodrigo]] from 20 September to 4 October when the place surrendered. On 7 October, its name of “Regimiento de Valencia” was confirmed.
  
 
The same year (1707), the detachment posted at Melilla defended the Fort of San Miguel.
 
The same year (1707), the detachment posted at Melilla defended the Fort of San Miguel.
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On 13 April 1708, the first battalion embarked at Cartagena for Sicily for the defence of the island.
 
On 13 April 1708, the first battalion embarked at Cartagena for Sicily for the defence of the island.
  
In 1709, the second battalion joined the Army of Extremadura and, on 7 May, took part in the Battle of La Gudiña.
+
In 1709, the second battalion joined the Army of Extremadura and, on 7 May, took part in the [[1709-05-07 – Battle of La Gudiña|Battle of La Gudiña]].
  
In 1710, the regiment operated with the Army of Catalonia. In the first days of June, it took part in the capture of Estadilla, then retired to Extremadura before joining the army assembling at the camp of Casatejada in Castile.. On 8 and 9 December, the regiment took part in the Combat of Brihuega. On 10 December, it fought in the victorious Combat of Villaviciosa.
+
In 1710, the regiment operated with the Army of Catalonia. In the first days of June, it took part in the capture of Estadilla, then retired to Extremadura before joining the army assembling at the camp of Casatejada in Castile.. On 8 and 9 December, the regiment took part in the [[1710-12-08 – Combat of Brihuega|Combat of Brihuega]]. On 10 December, it fought in the victorious [[1710-12-10 – Combat of Villaviciosa|Combat of Villaviciosa]].
  
 
In January 1711, the regiment stormed the Fort of Ariza. On 23 April, it took part in the capture of Balaguer. It then patrolled the mountains near Seo de Urgel and Castellciutat. At the end of the campaign, it returned to Extremadura.
 
In January 1711, the regiment stormed the Fort of Ariza. On 23 April, it took part in the capture of Balaguer. It then patrolled the mountains near Seo de Urgel and Castellciutat. At the end of the campaign, it returned to Extremadura.
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==Uniform==
 
==Uniform==
''no information found yet''
+
On 30 December 1706, an ''Ordenanza de Infantería'' was published. It stipulated that all regular line infantry uniforms would now be white with the colour of the former uniform becoming the distinctive colour used for cuffs and waistcoat. On 28 February 1707, a royal decree reinforced this ''ordenanza''. The new uniform were made in France, so it is very likely that some regiments had not received their new uniforms for the campaign of 1707. In fact, it seems that the officers and musicians of some regiment were still wearing the old uniform in 1707 at the [[1707-04-25 – Battle of Almansa|Battle of Almansa]], while the rank and file wore the new uniforms.
 
===Privates===
 
===Privates===
''no information found yet''
+
[[File:Tercio de Valencia Uniform Plate.jpg|left|frame|Uniform circa 1704 - Copyright: [[User:RCouture|Richard Couture]] ]]
 +
{| class="tblunout"
 +
|+<big>'''Uniform Details as per<br>Picouet'''</big>
 +
|-
 +
|'''Headgear'''||
 +
{| class="tblunin"
 +
|-
 +
|'''Musketeer'''||black felt cocked hat laced white with a red cockade or broad brimmed hat turned up on one side or another
 +
|-
 +
|'''Grenadier'''||''no information found''
 +
|}
 +
|-
 +
|'''Neckstock'''||white
 +
|-
 +
|'''Coat'''||blue with red lining and with tin buttons on the right side and 1 tin button on each side in the small of the back
 +
{| class="tblunin"
 +
|-
 +
|'''Collar'''||''none''
 +
|-
 +
|'''Shoulder&nbsp;Straps'''||''none''
 +
|-
 +
|'''Lapels'''||''none''
 +
|-
 +
|'''Pockets'''||horizontal pockets, each with 3 tin buttons
 +
|-
 +
|'''Cuffs'''||red, each with 3 tin buttons
 +
|-
 +
|'''Turnbacks'''||''none''
 +
|}
 +
|-
 +
|'''Waistcoat'''||red with tin buttons
 +
|-
 +
|'''Breeches'''||red
 +
|-
 +
|'''Stockings'''||red fastened under the knee with a natural leather strap
 +
|-
 +
|'''Gaiters'''||''no information found''
 +
|-
 +
|'''Leather&nbsp;Equipment'''||
 +
{| class="tblunin"
 +
|-
 +
|'''Crossbelt'''||natural leather
 +
|-
 +
|'''Waistbelt'''||natural leather
 +
|-
 +
|'''Cartridge Box'''||natural leather
 +
|-
 +
|'''Bayonet Scabbard'''||''n/a''
 +
|-
 +
|'''Scabbard'''||black
 +
|-
 +
|'''Footwear'''||black shoes with a brass buckle
 +
|}
 +
|}
 +
<br clear="all">
 +
 
 +
Rank and file were armed with a sword, a bayonet and a musket
 +
 
 +
According to the ''Ordenanza de Infantería'', from around 1707, the uniform of the regiment would be quite different with a white coat with blue lining, blue cuffs, white breeches and white stockings. However, the website [https://arrecaballo.es/ Arre Caballo] mentions that in 1707, the present regiment had white uniform with red as its distinctive colour.
 +
 
 
===Officers===
 
===Officers===
 
{{Spanish (Bourbon) Infantry Uniforms of Officers and NCOs}}
 
{{Spanish (Bourbon) Infantry Uniforms of Officers and NCOs}}
Line 65: Line 124:
 
This article is mostly made of abridged and adapted excerpts from the following books which are now in the public domain:  
 
This article is mostly made of abridged and adapted excerpts from the following books which are now in the public domain:  
 
*Clonard, Conde de, ''Historia Orgánica de las Armas de Infantería y Caballería'', vol. XIII, Madrid, 1851-62, pp. 363-370
 
*Clonard, Conde de, ''Historia Orgánica de las Armas de Infantería y Caballería'', vol. XIII, Madrid, 1851-62, pp. 363-370
 +
 +
'''Acknowledgement'''
 +
 +
Joseph O’Neill for the information on the new uniforms issued in 1707.
  
 
[[Category:Spanish (Bourbon) Land Unit]]
 
[[Category:Spanish (Bourbon) Land Unit]]

Latest revision as of 20:49, 21 September 2022

Hierarchical Path: War of the Spanish Succession (Main Page) >> Armies >> Spanish Army (Bourbon) >> Tercio de Valencia

Origin and History

The tercio was created in October 1654 in Valencia for the “Maestre de campo” Don Francisco Ferrer. It was designated as the “Tercio de Valencia”. The troops of this body, according to the privileges and exemptions of the Kingdom of Valencia, enjoyed the privilege of returning home at the end of each campaign. They had to immediately assemble at the convocation of the captain-general.

On 9 November 1654, the tercio went to garrison Vich. The French laid siege to the place but abandoned their project and, on 15 December, retired to the region of Ampurdan by Olot. The “maestre de campo” of the tercio was appointed governor of Vich. In 1658, the tercio took part in the Battle of Camprodon.

In 1674, the tercio embarked at Grao for Barcelona where it formed part of the garrison.

In 1689, the tercio was sent once more to Barcelona to defend the place. In 1690, it returned to Valencia.

In 1695, the tercio was sent to Barcelona again with his new “Maestre de campo”, the Count of Almenara. In 1697, it defended Barcelona against the army of the Duc de Vendôme. The place capitulated on 10 August and the tercio retired to Valencia.

In 1700, when the House of Bourbon acceded to the throne of Spain, the tercio was not assembled before January 1704 when it was placed under the command of the “Maestre de campo” Don Francisco de Mora y Perea.

On 28 September 1704, the tercio was transformed into a regiment which counted two battalions. Don Juan Manuel de Paz was promoted to lieutenant-colonel and Don Alonso Muñiz de Orellana to sargento mayor.

According to the reform of 20 April 1715, the “Regimiento de Niebla” was incorporated into the regiment on 12 May of the same year.

During the War of the Spanish Succession, the tercio was under the command of:

  • from 14 January 1704: Don Francisco de Mora y Perea
  • from 17??: Don Manuel de Navia Bolaño
  • from at least 1707: 1707 Don Tomás Salgado

The regiment was disbanded on 15 November 1721. A new unit would be raised in 1735 and would be disbanded in 1740.

Service during the War

After the change of dynasty, the tercio was not required before 12 January 1704 when Don Francisco de Mora y Perea became its “maestre de campo”. It was attached to the Army of Andalucia. In March, it joined the garrison of Cádiz. However, it was soon recalled to take part in the Siege of Gibraltar. On 18 September, it was transformed into a regiment counting two battalions. On 21 October it opened the trenches in front of Gibraltar. On 11 November, it took part in an unsuccessful assault.

On 2 May 1705, the siege of Gibraltar was raised and the regiment joined the Army of Valencia which captured Ayora, Alcira, Alguás and Bocairente before going to Extremadura. The regiment then took part in the invasion of Portugal, in the burning of Monforte and in the capture of the Castle of Nodar y San Aleixo. It then retired to Cádiz.

In 1706, a detachment of the regiment was sent to Melilla on the coast of North Africa. The rest of the regiment was assigned to the Army of Extremadura.. It was then sent to reinforce the troops operating in New Castile and advanced on Requena which it defended from 5 to 10 June when it became prisoners of war. On 4 October, its grenadiers took part in the reconquest of Cuenca.

In 1707, the colonel, a few officers and several men managed to escape from captivity. In March, the two battalions of the regiment were reorganised in Extremadura. They were then sent to Castile. On 25 April, the regiment took part in the Battle of Almansa. It then took part in the reconquest of Onteniente and Elche before rejoining a corps which retired to Extremadura. In June, it participated in the blockade of Olivenza, and in the attacks on Serpa and Moura. It then took part in the Siege of Ciudad Rodrigo from 20 September to 4 October when the place surrendered. On 7 October, its name of “Regimiento de Valencia” was confirmed.

The same year (1707), the detachment posted at Melilla defended the Fort of San Miguel.

On 13 April 1708, the first battalion embarked at Cartagena for Sicily for the defence of the island.

In 1709, the second battalion joined the Army of Extremadura and, on 7 May, took part in the Battle of La Gudiña.

In 1710, the regiment operated with the Army of Catalonia. In the first days of June, it took part in the capture of Estadilla, then retired to Extremadura before joining the army assembling at the camp of Casatejada in Castile.. On 8 and 9 December, the regiment took part in the Combat of Brihuega. On 10 December, it fought in the victorious Combat of Villaviciosa.

In January 1711, the regiment stormed the Fort of Ariza. On 23 April, it took part in the capture of Balaguer. It then patrolled the mountains near Seo de Urgel and Castellciutat. At the end of the campaign, it returned to Extremadura.

In 1712, the regiment campaigned in Extremadura. In October, it took part in the siege of Campo Major.

In 1713, the second battalion embarked for Tuscany to assume garrison duty in the place of Portolongone on the Island of Elba.

Uniform

On 30 December 1706, an Ordenanza de Infantería was published. It stipulated that all regular line infantry uniforms would now be white with the colour of the former uniform becoming the distinctive colour used for cuffs and waistcoat. On 28 February 1707, a royal decree reinforced this ordenanza. The new uniform were made in France, so it is very likely that some regiments had not received their new uniforms for the campaign of 1707. In fact, it seems that the officers and musicians of some regiment were still wearing the old uniform in 1707 at the Battle of Almansa, while the rank and file wore the new uniforms.

Privates

Uniform circa 1704 - Copyright: Richard Couture
Uniform Details as per
Picouet
Headgear
Musketeer black felt cocked hat laced white with a red cockade or broad brimmed hat turned up on one side or another
Grenadier no information found
Neckstock white
Coat blue with red lining and with tin buttons on the right side and 1 tin button on each side in the small of the back
Collar none
Shoulder Straps none
Lapels none
Pockets horizontal pockets, each with 3 tin buttons
Cuffs red, each with 3 tin buttons
Turnbacks none
Waistcoat red with tin buttons
Breeches red
Stockings red fastened under the knee with a natural leather strap
Gaiters no information found
Leather Equipment
Crossbelt natural leather
Waistbelt natural leather
Cartridge Box natural leather
Bayonet Scabbard n/a
Scabbard black
Footwear black shoes with a brass buckle


Rank and file were armed with a sword, a bayonet and a musket

According to the Ordenanza de Infantería, from around 1707, the uniform of the regiment would be quite different with a white coat with blue lining, blue cuffs, white breeches and white stockings. However, the website Arre Caballo mentions that in 1707, the present regiment had white uniform with red as its distinctive colour.

Officers

Uniforms of officers differed from those of privates and NCOs by the finer material used. Their waistcoat, saddle cloth and housings were edged with a wide golden braid.

In the infantry, officers wore a silver or gold gorget and a spontoon.

The regulation of 30 December 1704 specified the distinctive of each military rank:

  • colonel: a baton with a gold knob
  • lieutenant-colonel: a baton with a silver knob
  • sargento mayor: a baton with a silver topped knob
  • captain: baton as worn under the reign of the Habsburg
  • lieutenant: baton as worn under the reign of the Habsburg
  • sub-lieutenant: baton with a horn band and a silver ring

NCOs

The regulation of 30 December 1704 specified the distinctive of each military rank:

  • sergeant : baton without knob and halberd
  • mariscal de logis (quartermaster): small white woolen epaulette
  • brigadier: swagger stick
  • corporal of squadron: swagger stick
  • second corporal of squadron (rank suppressed in 1706): swagger stick

Musicians

no information found yet

Colours

no information found yet

References

This article is mostly made of abridged and adapted excerpts from the following books which are now in the public domain:

  • Clonard, Conde de, Historia Orgánica de las Armas de Infantería y Caballería, vol. XIII, Madrid, 1851-62, pp. 363-370

Acknowledgement

Joseph O’Neill for the information on the new uniforms issued in 1707.