Tercio del Casco de Granada

From Project WSS
Jump to navigationJump to search

Hierarchical Path: War of the Spanish Succession (Main Page) >> Armies >> Spanish Army (Bourbon) >> Tercio del Casco de Granada

Origin and History

The tercio was created on 22 April 1657 from the militia of Granada during the Portuguese Restoration War (1640–68) and seven companies were first reviewed at Benalcázar. The tercio (473 men) joined the army in Extremadura under the command of its “Maestre de Campo” Don Sebastian Graneros. The same year, the tercio took part in the defence of Valencia de Alcántara. The rest of the tercio marched from Granada and joined the men already stationed in Valencia de Alcántara. In 1658, the tercio went to Extremadura and took part in the siege of Olivenza. In 1659, it retired to Extremadura and then to Granada. In 1662, it took part in the siege and capture of Juromenha and in the conquest of Crato; in 1663, in the siege and capture of Evora and in the defeat of Ameixal; in 1665, in the disastrous battle of Montes Claros.

In 1674, during the Franco-Dutch War (1672–78), the tercio embarked at Málaga to reinforce the Army of Catalonia facing a French invasion and taking parft in the recapture of Maurellás and Ceret.

In 1689, during the Nine Years' War (1688–97), 300 men of the tercio were transported to Barcelona aboard a galley where they were later joined by the rst of the unit. It then went to Gerona from where detachments were sent to Palamós and Bascára. The reunited tercio then took part in the battle of Camprodon and in the relief of Melilla besieged by the Moors. In 1680. the tercio went from Málaga to Barcelona and then garrisoned Rosas. In 1694, it returned to Málaga and took part in the battle on the Ter and in the unsuccessful defences of Palamós and Gerona. In 1695, it started the campaign in Barcelona but returned to Granada. In 1696, it took part in the battle of Hostalrich and the retreated to Málaga and later to Granada. In 1697, the tercio assumed service aboard the galleys at Cartagena and Málaga. Its grenadiers took part in the unsuccessful defence of Barcelona.

In 1699, the tercio was sent to Gibraltar and was then transported to Ceuta which was threatened by the Moors. It then returned to Gibraltar.

In 1700, the tercio was sent back to Ceuta along with the Tercio de Burgos. In December, it re-embarked and sailed for Santa Maria.

On 14 July 1705, the tercio was subdivided into two distinct units: the first retaining the name of “Tercio del Casco de Granada” and the second being named “Segundo Corpo de Granada” (soon renamed “Tercio de Santa Fé” in 1707).

In 1707, the old tercio became a regiment and was renamed “Regimiento de Granada”.

During the War of the Spanish Succession, the tercio was under the command of:

  • from 1697: Don Gonzalo Zegri
  • from 20 June 1702: Don Pedro Mesia de la Cerda
  • from 24 April 1706: Don Pedro Arias Ozores

On 20 April 1715, the former “Regimiento de Santa Fé” was incorporated into the regiment.

Service during the War

In 1702, the tercio was stationed at Ceuta.

On 18 May 1703, the tercio took part in the general sortie at Ceuta, driving the Moors out of their trenches and demolishing their camp.

In 1704, the tercio was transferred to the Army of Extremadura and served in the campaign of Portugal” on 8 May it took part in the capture of Salvatierra; and on 17 May in the capture of Monsanto. On 19 May, it was part of the detachment of the General Marquis de Toy who marched on Castelo Branco. On 23 May, Toy's detachment stormed Castelo Branco. It then encamped in front of Portalegre which soon surrendered. From 12 June, it took part in the siege of Castelo de Vide. It was afterwards sent to take part in the siege of Gibraltar which started only on 21 September.

In 1705, the tercio continued to participate in the siege of Gibraltar which was raised on 2 May. It was then assigned with other units to the blockade of Gibraltar. On 13 May, some 2,000 Allies made a sortie and made themselves master of a place of arms in the fortified lines forming the blockade. The tercio counter-attacked and drove them back. On 14 July, the tercio was subdivided into two distinct units: the first retaining the name of “Tercio del Casco de Granada” and the second being named “Segundo Corpo de Granada”.

In the Spring of 1706, the Portuguese army, reinforced by an Allied corps, took the offensive. The tercio then joined the Army of Extremadura and marched to Jeréz de los Caballeros which was surrounded by the Portuguese. The tercio was then allocated to the army who would operate in the Province of Valencia. On 2 May, it was ordered to take position at Requena. On 5 May, an Allied force led by the Earl of Peterborough attacked Requena and the tercio surrendered as prisoners of war. It was then brought to Portugal.

In 1707, the old tercio became a regiment and renamed “Regimiento de Granada”.

In June 1708, the regiment was exchanged and was sent to Cádiz to garrison the place.

In 1709, the regiment was increased to two battalions.

In 1710, the regiment was transferred to Ceuta.

In 1712, the regiment embarked at Ceuta for Málaga. From these quarters, it provided garrisons to the Spanish places on the coast of North Africa.

In 1713, the entire regiment assembled and was transported to Ceuta.

Uniform

On 30 December 1706, an Ordenanza de Infantería was published. It stipulated that all regular line infantry uniforms would now be white with the colour of the former uniform becoming the distinctive colour used for cuffs and waistcoat. On 28 February 1707, a royal decree reinforced this ordenanza. The new uniform were made in France, so it is very likely that some regiments had not received their new uniforms for the campaign of 1707. In fact, it seems that the officers and musicians of some regiment were still wearing the old uniform in 1707 at the Battle of Almansa, while the rank and file wore the new uniforms.

Privates

Uniform circa 1700 - Copyright: Richard Couture
Uniform Details as per
Picouet
Headgear
Musketeer black felt cocked hat laced white with a red cockade or broad brimmed hat turned up on one side or another
Grenadier no information found
Neckstock white
Coat green with white lining and with tin buttons on the right side and 1 tin button on each side in the small of the back
Collar none
Shoulder Straps none
Lapels none
Pockets horizontal pockets, each with 3 tin buttons
Cuffs white, each with 3 tin buttons
Turnbacks none
Waistcoat white with tin buttons
Breeches green
Stockings red fastened under the knee with a natural leather strap
Gaiters no information found
Leather Equipment
Crossbelt natural leather
Waistbelt natural leather
Cartridge Box natural leather
Bayonet Scabbard n/a
Scabbard black
Footwear black shoes with a brass buckle


Rank and file were armed with a sword, a bayonet and a musket

According to the Ordenanza de Infantería, from around 1707, the uniform of the regiment would be quite different with a white coat with green lining, green cuffs and green stockings.

Officers

Uniforms of officers differed from those of privates and NCOs by the finer material used. Their waistcoat, saddle cloth and housings were edged with a wide golden braid.

In the infantry, officers wore a silver or gold gorget and a spontoon.

The regulation of 30 December 1704 specified the distinctive of each military rank:

  • colonel: a baton with a gold knob
  • lieutenant-colonel: a baton with a silver knob
  • sargento mayor: a baton with a silver topped knob
  • captain: baton as worn under the reign of the Habsburg
  • lieutenant: baton as worn under the reign of the Habsburg
  • sub-lieutenant: baton with a horn band and a silver ring

NCOs

The regulation of 30 December 1704 specified the distinctive of each military rank:

  • sergeant : baton without knob and halberd
  • mariscal de logis (quartermaster): small white woolen epaulette
  • brigadier: swagger stick
  • corporal of squadron: swagger stick
  • second corporal of squadron (rank suppressed in 1706): swagger stick

Musicians

no information found yet

Colours

no information found yet

References

This article is mostly made of abridged and adapted excerpts from the following books which are now in the public domain:

  • Clonard, Conde de, Historia Orgánica de las Armas de Infantería y Caballería, vol. IX, Madrid, 1851-62, pp. 319-375