Valensart Dragoons

From Project WSS
Revision as of 17:38, 11 May 2020 by RCouture (talk | contribs) (Added info contributed by Michele Savasta Fiore)
(diff) ← Older revision | Latest revision (diff) | Newer revision → (diff)
Jump to navigationJump to search

Hierarchical Path: War of the Spanish Succession (Main Page) >> Armies >> Spanish Army (Bourbon) >> Valensart Dragoons

Origin and History

This tercio of cavalry was raised in Flanders on 12 January 1676 by Nicolas Hartmant. The Venloo Dragoons contributed one squadron to the new tercio. The year of its creation, the tercio took part in the unsuccessful attempt to relieve Bouchain. In 1677, it took part in the Battle of Cassel and in the unsuccessful siege of Charleroi. In 1678, it fought in the Battle of Saint-Denis.

In 1683 and 1684, the tercio took part in operations against the French in the Spanish Netherlands and in the Duchy of Luxembourg.

In 1689, during the Nine Years' War (1688–97), the tercio took part in the Battle of Walcourt. In 1690, it fought in the Battle of Fleurus; in 1691, in the Battle of Leuze; in 1693, in the Battle of Landen. In 1694, it took part in the attack of the bridge of Speyer and in the siege and capture of Huy; in 1695, in the siege and capture of Namur.

On 31 March 1701, all Spanish dragoon tercios serving in the Spanish Netherlands were reorganised along the lines of the French dragoon regiments at the request of the Maréchal de Boufflers.

Did you know that...
In some orders of battle for the Battle of Villaviciosa (1710), a Spanish unit designated as the "Quimalol Dragoons" is listed. We believe that "Quimalol" is a rough translation in Spanish of "Brouchoven," the name of the colonel of the present regiment at the time of this battle.

The successive colonels of the tercio/regiment were:

  • from 12 January 1676: Don Nicolas Hartmant
  • from 3 June 1676: Don Vandewin van der Pit
  • from 21 February 1684: Don Théodore de Valensart
  • from 26 November 1705: Don Josias Guillermo de Acquaviva d’Aragona
  • from 6 April 1710: Don Francisco Brouchoven
  • from 13 February 1711: Don Manuel de Solis

In 1718, the regiment was renamed "Batavia."

Service during the War

On 10 June 1702, the regiment engaged the British cavalry as the Allies were retreating towards Nijmegen.

In 1703, the regiment formed part of the army under the command of the Duc de Bourgogne who campaigned on the Rhine. In October, it participated in the Siege of Landau. On November 15, it fought in the Combat of Speyerbach where it was deployed on the right wing. On November 17, Landau surrendered.

In 1704, the regiment was part of the auxiliary corps sent to reinforce the Maréchal de Tallard in Bavaria. On 13 August 1704, it fought in the disastrous Battle of Blenheim where it suffered heavy losses.

In 1705, the regiment was assigned to the Army of Germany under the Maréchal de Villars who took position in the Lines of Wissembourg.

In 1706, the regiment was transferred to the Spanish Netherlands. On 23 May, if fought in the Battle of Ramillies.

In 1707, the regiment once more joined the Villars' army operating in Germany. On 22 May, it took part in an attack on the Lines of Stollhofen.

In 1708, the regiment returned to the Spanish Netherlands where it served under the command of the Duc de Bourgogne. On 5 July, it fought in an engagement against the Dutch. On 11 July, it took part in the Battle of Oudenarde.

On 11 September 1709, the regiment fought in the Battle of Malplaquet

In 1710, the regiment evacuated the Spanish Netherlands and marched through France to Catalonia. On 10 June, it joined the army encamped at Balaguer. On 13 June, it was forced to retire to Belcayre and Bellmunt; and on 14 June, between Ibars and Berbens. On 30 June, it was attached to a corps under the command of the General Baron de Huart who was sent to reinforce the Spanish troops fighting the rebels in the Rivagorza region. At the end of July, the regiment retired to Roussillon with the rest of Huart's force. It later took part in the siege of Gerona.

In 1711, the regiment was posted on the right wing of the first line. When Gerona surrendered, on 25 January, the regiment was detached under the command of General Marquis de Arpajou in the mountains of Aragon and Catalonia. In August, this force captured the Castle of Arenys, taking the Austrian General Schower prisoner. The division then marched on Benasque and Castell-Ileó who surrendered in mid-September. For the rest of the year, the regiment secured mountain passes for the convoys.

In 1712, the regiment continued to occupy the region of Rivagorza.

In 1713, the regiment was posted in the mountains.

In 1714, the regiment was allocation to a corps under General Don Feliciano de Bracamonte who pursued the insurgents in the mountains, attacking them at Ripoll. It then completed the pacification of Catalonia.

Uniform

Troopers

Uniform in 1706 - Copyright: Michele Savasta Fiore
Uniform Details in 1706
Headgear mitre cap with a green front flap edged yellow and a red cap with a green pompom
Neck stock white
Coat red with green lining; copper buttons
Collar none
Shoulder straps green aiguillette on the right shoulder
Lapels none
Pockets horizontal pockets, each with 3 copper buttons
Cuffs green, each with 3 copper buttons
Turnbacks none
Waistcoat green with small copper buttons
Breeches red
Leather Equipment
Bandolier yellow leather
Waistbelt natural leather worn above the coat (white for grenadiers)
Cartridge Box black leather
Scabbard natural leather with a white metal tip
Footgear black leather gaiters fastened with straps
Horse Furniture
Saddlecloth green bordered with a red braid with a central green stripe
Housings green bordered with a red braid with a central green stripe and decorated with the golden monogram of Philip V
Blanket roll no information found


Troopers were armed with a sword, two pistols and a musket.

Officers

Uniforms of officers differed from those of privates and NCOs by the finer material used. Their waistcoat, saddle cloth and housings were edged with a wide golden braid. They always wore a tricorne notwithstanding the headgear worn by soldiers.

The regulation of 30 December 1704 specified the distinctive of each military rank:

  • colonel: a baton with a gold knob
  • lieutenant-colonel: a baton with a silver knob
  • sargento mayor: a baton with a silver topped knob
  • captain: silver or golden epaulettes (according to the metal colour of the regiment) on both shoulders
  • lieutenant: silver or golden epaulette (according to the metal colour of the regiment) on the right shoulder
  • cornet: silver or golden epaulette (according to the metal colour of the regiment) on the left shoulder

NCOs

The regulation of 30 December 1704 specified the distinctive of each military rank:

  • sergeant : baton without knob and halberd
  • mariscal de logis (quartermaster): small woolen epaulette (red or of the distinctive colour of the regiment)
  • brigadier: swagger stick
  • corporal of squadron: swagger stick
  • second corporal of squadron (rank suppressed in 1706): swagger stick

Musicians

no information found

Guidons

Tentative reconstruction of the guidons in 1705, using the coat of arms of the Napolitan House of Acquaviva d’Aragona with fleurs de lys to show their allegiance to the Bourbons.

Colonela Guidon (carried by the first squadron): white field

  • obverse: the coat of arms of the proprietor of the regiment (here the House of Acquaviva d’Aragona) within the collar of the Golden Fleece
  • reverse: the Royal coat of arms on the Cross of Burgundy

Ordonnance Guidons (carried by all other squadrons): crimson field

  • obverse: the coat of arms of the proprietor of the regiment (here the House of Acquaviva d’Aragona) within the collar of the Golden Fleece
  • reverse: the Cross of burgundy
Colonela Guidon - Copyright: Michele Savasta Fiore using elements contributed by Gilbert Noury
Ordonnance Guidon - Copyright: Michele Savasta Fiore using elements contributed by Gilbert Noury

References

This article is mostly made of abridged and adapted excerpts from the following books which are now in the public domain:

  • Clonard, Conde de, Historia Orgánica de las Armas de Infantería y Caballería, vol. XV, Madrid, 1851-62, pp. 244-261

Michele Savasta Fiore for the research on the uniforms of the regiment