Difference between revisions of "Armies"

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<small>Hierarchical Path: [[Main Page|Seven Years' War (Main Page)]] &gt;&gt; {{PAGENAME}}</small>
 
<small>Hierarchical Path: [[Main Page|Seven Years' War (Main Page)]] &gt;&gt; {{PAGENAME}}</small>
  
{| class="toc" align="right" width="350"
+
{| class="toc" align="right" width="300" Border="1"
 
|-
 
|-
!Some terminology...
+
|'''Some terminology...'''<br>
|- valign="top"
+
&nbsp;<br>
|style="padding:5px;"|'''[[Armies – Official names|Official names of the armies of the period]]'''
+
[[Armies – Official names|Official names of the armies of the period]]<br>
 
+
[[Armies – Terminology used for flags|Terminology used for flags]]<br>
'''[[Armies – Terminology used for flags|Terminology used for flags]]'''
+
&nbsp;<br>
|-
+
'''...presentation of [[Generalities about long-arms]]'''<br>
!...a tentative [[Colour Chart]] for uniforms and flags
+
'''and [[Generalities about Powder]]'''<br>
|-
+
&nbsp;<br>
!...information about [[Prisoners of war]] during this period
+
'''...a tentative [[Colour Chart]] for uniforms and flags'''<br>
|-
+
&nbsp;<br>
!...and explanations on these confusing Hessian armies
+
...'''information about [[Prisoners of war]] during this period'''<br>
|- valign="top"
+
&nbsp;<br>
|style="padding:5px;"|During the Seven Years' War, there were two distinct Hessian landgravates fielding units: Hessen-Darmstadt and Hessen-Kassel. Furthermore, these landgravates fought on different sides. Finally, to make things more complicated, there was a county of Hessen-Hanau which was part of the landgravate of Hessen-Kassel. The article '''[[Hessian Armies]]''' clarifies the situation and helps to distinguish these two armies.
+
'''...and explanations on these confusing Hessian armies'''<br>
 +
&nbsp;<br>
 +
During the Seven Years' War, there were two distinct Hessian landgravates fielding units: Hessen-Darmstadt and Hessen-Kassel. Furthermore, these landgravates fought on different sides. Finally, to make things more complicated, there was a county of Hessen-Hanau which was part of the landgravate of Hessen-Kassel. The article '''[[Hessian Armies]]''' clarifies the situation and helps to distinguish these two armies.
 
|}
 
|}
  
 
The following armies were involved in the Seven Years War:
 
The following armies were involved in the Seven Years War:
  
{| width="60%"
+
{| width="65%"
 
|- align="left"
 
|- align="left"
 
!'''Major states aligned with Austria'''||'''Major states aligned with Prussia'''
 
!'''Major states aligned with Austria'''||'''Major states aligned with Prussia'''
 
|- valign="top"
 
|- valign="top"
|[[Austrian Army|Austria]] (135 articles)
+
|[[Austrian Army|Austria]] (155 articles)
  
[[French Army|France]] (291 articles)
+
[[French Army|France]] (318 articles)
  
[[Russian Army|Russia]] (125 articles)
+
[[Russian Army|Russia]] (159 articles)
  
[[Saxon Army|Saxony]] (36 articles)
+
[[Saxon Army|Saxony]] (37 articles)
  
[[Spanish Army|Spain]] (80 articles)
+
[[Spanish Army|Spain]] (94 articles)
  
[[Swedish Army|Sweden]] (57 articles)
+
[[Swedish Army|Sweden]] (64 articles)
  
[[Reichsarmee|Holy Roman Empire ("Reichsarmee")]] (32 articles)
+
[[Reichsarmee|Holy Roman Empire ("Reichsarmee")]] (33 articles)
  
||[[British Army|Great Britain]] (169 articles)
+
||[[British Army|Great Britain]] (189 articles)
  
[[Hanoverian Army|Hanover]] (65 articles)
+
[[Hanoverian Army|Hanover]] (70 articles)
 
 
[[Portuguese Army|Portugal]] (62 articles)
 
 
 
[[Prussian Army|Prussia]] (186 articles)
 
  
 +
[[Portuguese Army|Portugal]] (65 articles)
  
 +
[[Prussian Army|Prussia]] (228 articles)
 
|-
 
|-
 
|'''Minor states aligned with Austria'''||'''Minor states aligned with Prussia'''
 
|'''Minor states aligned with Austria'''||'''Minor states aligned with Prussia'''
 
|- valign="top"
 
|- valign="top"
|[[Bavarian Army|Bavaria]] (17 articles)
+
|[[Bavarian Army|Bavaria]] (20 articles)
 +
 
 +
[[Hesse-Darmstadt Army|Hessen-Darmstadt]] (11 articles)
  
[[Hesse-Darmstadt Army|Hessen-Darmstadt]] (10 articles)
+
[[Mecklenburg-Schwerin Army|Mecklenburg-Schwerin]] (4 articles)
  
 
[[Modenese Army|Modena]] (9 articles)
 
[[Modenese Army|Modena]] (9 articles)
Line 58: Line 60:
 
[[Palatine Army|Palatinate]] (15 articles)
 
[[Palatine Army|Palatinate]] (15 articles)
  
[[Württemberg Army|Württemberg]] (25 articles)
+
[[Württemberg Army|Württemberg]] (26 articles)
  
||[[Brunswick Army|Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel]] (19 articles)
+
||[[Brunswick Army|Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel]] (20 articles)
  
[[Hesse-Kassel Army|Hessen-Kassel]] (37 articles)
+
[[Hesse-Kassel Army|Hessen-Kassel]] (39 articles)
  
 
[[Schaumburg-Lippe Army|Schaumburg-Lippe]] (4 articles)
 
[[Schaumburg-Lippe Army|Schaumburg-Lippe]] (4 articles)
 +
|-
 +
|'''Native American Peoples aligned with France'''||'''Native American Peoples aligned with Great Britain'''
 +
|- valign="top"
 +
|'''Resident Tribes ''aka Mission Tribes'''''
 +
 +
[[Iroquois of Canada]]
 +
*of Sault Saint-Louis (''present-day Kahnawake, aka Caughnawaga'')
 +
*of Deux-Montagnes (''present-day Kanesatake'')
 +
*of La Présentation (''near present-day Ogdensburg/NY'')
 +
[[Wyandot People|Wyandot of Lorette]] (''aka Huron'')
 +
 +
'''Independent Peoples'''
 +
 +
[[Algonquin People|Algonquin]]<br>
 +
[[Cherokee People|Cherokee]] (''initially aligned with the British'')<br>
 +
[[Chippewa People|Chippewa]] (''including Mississauga and Sauteux'')<br>
 +
[[Cree People|Cree]]<br>
 +
[[Illinois People|Illinois]]<br>
 +
[[Iowa People|Iowa]]<br>
 +
[[Kickapoo People|Kickapoo]]<br>
 +
[[Lenape People|Lenape]] (''aka Delaware'')<br>
 +
 +
[[Mascouten People|Mascouten]]<br>
 +
[[Menominee People|Menominee]] (''aka Folles Avoines'')<br>
 +
[[Meskwaki People|Meskwaki]] (''aka Fox or Renard'')<br>
 +
[[Miami People|Miami]]<br>
 +
[[Nipissing People|Nipissing]]<br>
 +
[[Odawa People|Odawa]] (''aka Ottawa'')<br>
 +
[[Potawatomi People|Potawatomi]]<br>
 +
[[Sauk People|Sauk]]<br>
 +
[[Shawnee People|Shawnee]]<br>
 +
[[Wabanaki Confederacy]]<br>
 +
*Abenaki
 +
*Maliseet
 +
*Miꞌkmaq
 +
Wendat of Detroit (''aka Huron'')<br>
 +
[[Winnebago People|Winnebago]]
 +
||[[Catawba People|Catawba]]<br>
 +
[[Chickasaw People|Chickasaw]]<br>
 +
[[Iroquois Confederacy]] (''still divided in their allegiance in 1758'')
 +
*Cayuga
 +
*Mohawk
 +
*Onondaga
 +
*Oneida
 +
*Seneca
 +
*Tuscarora
 +
[[Mingo People|Mingo]] (''aka Iroquois of the Ohio'')<br>
 +
[[Mahican People|Mahican]] (''aka Stockbridge people'')
 
|}
 
|}
 +
 +
==References==
 +
 +
Berkovich, Ilya: ''Fear, Honour and Emotional Control on the Eighteenth-Century Battlefield''. In Battlefield Emotions 1500-1800. Practices, Experience, Imagination, edited by Erika Kuijpers and Cornelis van der Haven, 93-110. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2016.
 +
 +
Berkovich, Ilya: ''Motivation in War. The Experience of Common Soldiers in Old-Regime Europe''. Cambridge et al.: Cambridge University Press, 2017.
 +
 +
Bröckling, Ulrich: ''Disziplin. Soziologie und Geschichte militärischer Gehorsamsproduktion''. München: Verlag Wilhelm Fink, 1997.
 +
 +
''Landsknechte, Soldatenfrauen und Nationalkrieger. Militär, Krieg und Geschlechterordnung im historischen Wandel'', edited by Karen Hagemann and Ralf Pröve. Frankfurt/Main and New York: Campus, 1998.
 +
 +
Nowosadtko, Jutta: ''Militärjustiz in der Frühen Neuzeit. Anmerkungen zu einem vernachlässigten Feld der historischen Kriminalitätsforschung''. In Unrecht und Recht. Kriminalität und Gesellschaft im Wandel von 1500-2000. Gemeinsame Landesausstellung der rheinland-pfälzischen und saarländischen Archive, edited by Heinz-Günther Borck, 638-651. Koblenz: Verlag der Landesarchivverwaltung Rheinland-Pfalz, 2002.
 +
 +
Ortenburg, Georg: ''Waffe und Waffengebrauch im Zeitalter der Kabinettskriege''. Koblenz: Bernard & Graefe, 1986.
 +
 +
Pelizaeus, Ludolf: ''Die zentraleuropäische Entwicklung der Begriffe “Ehre”, “Disziplin” und „Pflicht“ im Spiegel von Militärschriftstellern und Reglements 1500-1808''. In Ehre und Pflichterfüllung als Codes militärischer Tugenden, edited by Ulrike Ludwig, Markus Pöhlmann and John Zimmermann, 31-45. Paderborn: Ferdinand Schöningh, 2014.
 +
 +
Ross, Stephen T.: ''From Flintlock to rifle: Infantry tactics, 1740-1866''. London: Routledge, 1979.
 +
 +
Sikora, Michael: ''Disziplin und Desertion: Strukturprobleme militärischer Organisation im 18. Jahrhundert''. Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, 1996.
 +
 +
'''Military Music'''
 +
 +
Braun, Werner: ''Entwurf für eine Typologie der “Hautboisten”''. In Der Sozialstatus des Berufsmusikers vom 17. bis 18. Jahrhundert, edited by Walter Salmen, 43-64. Basel et al.: Bärenreiter, 1971.
 +
 +
Haynes, Bruce: ''The Eloquent Oboe. A History of the Hautboy 1640-1760''. Oxford et al.: Oxford University Press, 2001.
 +
 +
Hofer, Achim: ‘Zur Erforschung und Spielpraxis von Märschen bis um 1750''. In Militärmusik und „zivile“ Musik. Be­ziehungen und Einflüsse, edited by Armin Griebel and Horst Steinmetz, 41-54. Uffenheim: Forschungsstelle für fränkische Volksmusik, 1993).
 +
 +
Hofer, Achim: ''Studien zur Geschichte des Militärmarsches''. 2 vols. Tutzing: Schneider, 1988.
 +
 +
Kirby, Percival: ''The Kettle-Drums: An Historical Survey''. Music & Letters 9 (1929): 34-43.
 +
 +
Marten, Peter. C.: ''Die Musik der Spielleute des altpreussischen Heeres''. Osnabrück: Biblio, 1976.
 +
 +
Möbius, Sascha: ''”Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott” und “Das furchtbare Lärmen ihrer Trommeln”. Preußische Militärmusik in der Kultur des Kampfes in den Schlesischen Kriegen''. In Mars und die Musen. Das Wechselspiel zwischen Militär und Gesellschaft in der frühen Neuzeit, eds. Jutta Nowosadtko and Matthias Rogg, 261-290. Münster: Lit Verlag, 2008.
 +
 +
'''Acknowledgements'''
 +
 +
Dr. Sascha Möbius for the list of suggested references
  
 
[[Category:Portal]]
 
[[Category:Portal]]

Latest revision as of 19:12, 28 August 2021

Hierarchical Path: Seven Years' War (Main Page) >> Armies

Some terminology...

 
Official names of the armies of the period
Terminology used for flags
 
...presentation of Generalities about long-arms
and Generalities about Powder
 
...a tentative Colour Chart for uniforms and flags
 
...information about Prisoners of war during this period
 
...and explanations on these confusing Hessian armies
 
During the Seven Years' War, there were two distinct Hessian landgravates fielding units: Hessen-Darmstadt and Hessen-Kassel. Furthermore, these landgravates fought on different sides. Finally, to make things more complicated, there was a county of Hessen-Hanau which was part of the landgravate of Hessen-Kassel. The article Hessian Armies clarifies the situation and helps to distinguish these two armies.

The following armies were involved in the Seven Years War:

Major states aligned with Austria Major states aligned with Prussia
Austria (155 articles)

France (318 articles)

Russia (159 articles)

Saxony (37 articles)

Spain (94 articles)

Sweden (64 articles)

Holy Roman Empire ("Reichsarmee") (33 articles)

Great Britain (189 articles)

Hanover (70 articles)

Portugal (65 articles)

Prussia (228 articles)

Minor states aligned with Austria Minor states aligned with Prussia
Bavaria (20 articles)

Hessen-Darmstadt (11 articles)

Mecklenburg-Schwerin (4 articles)

Modena (9 articles)

Palatinate (15 articles)

Württemberg (26 articles)

Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (20 articles)

Hessen-Kassel (39 articles)

Schaumburg-Lippe (4 articles)

Native American Peoples aligned with France Native American Peoples aligned with Great Britain
Resident Tribes aka Mission Tribes

Iroquois of Canada

  • of Sault Saint-Louis (present-day Kahnawake, aka Caughnawaga)
  • of Deux-Montagnes (present-day Kanesatake)
  • of La Présentation (near present-day Ogdensburg/NY)

Wyandot of Lorette (aka Huron)

Independent Peoples

Algonquin
Cherokee (initially aligned with the British)
Chippewa (including Mississauga and Sauteux)
Cree
Illinois
Iowa
Kickapoo
Lenape (aka Delaware)

Mascouten
Menominee (aka Folles Avoines)
Meskwaki (aka Fox or Renard)
Miami
Nipissing
Odawa (aka Ottawa)
Potawatomi
Sauk
Shawnee
Wabanaki Confederacy

  • Abenaki
  • Maliseet
  • Miꞌkmaq

Wendat of Detroit (aka Huron)
Winnebago

Catawba

Chickasaw
Iroquois Confederacy (still divided in their allegiance in 1758)

  • Cayuga
  • Mohawk
  • Onondaga
  • Oneida
  • Seneca
  • Tuscarora

Mingo (aka Iroquois of the Ohio)
Mahican (aka Stockbridge people)

References

Berkovich, Ilya: Fear, Honour and Emotional Control on the Eighteenth-Century Battlefield. In Battlefield Emotions 1500-1800. Practices, Experience, Imagination, edited by Erika Kuijpers and Cornelis van der Haven, 93-110. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2016.

Berkovich, Ilya: Motivation in War. The Experience of Common Soldiers in Old-Regime Europe. Cambridge et al.: Cambridge University Press, 2017.

Bröckling, Ulrich: Disziplin. Soziologie und Geschichte militärischer Gehorsamsproduktion. München: Verlag Wilhelm Fink, 1997.

Landsknechte, Soldatenfrauen und Nationalkrieger. Militär, Krieg und Geschlechterordnung im historischen Wandel, edited by Karen Hagemann and Ralf Pröve. Frankfurt/Main and New York: Campus, 1998.

Nowosadtko, Jutta: Militärjustiz in der Frühen Neuzeit. Anmerkungen zu einem vernachlässigten Feld der historischen Kriminalitätsforschung. In Unrecht und Recht. Kriminalität und Gesellschaft im Wandel von 1500-2000. Gemeinsame Landesausstellung der rheinland-pfälzischen und saarländischen Archive, edited by Heinz-Günther Borck, 638-651. Koblenz: Verlag der Landesarchivverwaltung Rheinland-Pfalz, 2002.

Ortenburg, Georg: Waffe und Waffengebrauch im Zeitalter der Kabinettskriege. Koblenz: Bernard & Graefe, 1986.

Pelizaeus, Ludolf: Die zentraleuropäische Entwicklung der Begriffe “Ehre”, “Disziplin” und „Pflicht“ im Spiegel von Militärschriftstellern und Reglements 1500-1808. In Ehre und Pflichterfüllung als Codes militärischer Tugenden, edited by Ulrike Ludwig, Markus Pöhlmann and John Zimmermann, 31-45. Paderborn: Ferdinand Schöningh, 2014.

Ross, Stephen T.: From Flintlock to rifle: Infantry tactics, 1740-1866. London: Routledge, 1979.

Sikora, Michael: Disziplin und Desertion: Strukturprobleme militärischer Organisation im 18. Jahrhundert. Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, 1996.

Military Music

Braun, Werner: Entwurf für eine Typologie der “Hautboisten”. In Der Sozialstatus des Berufsmusikers vom 17. bis 18. Jahrhundert, edited by Walter Salmen, 43-64. Basel et al.: Bärenreiter, 1971.

Haynes, Bruce: The Eloquent Oboe. A History of the Hautboy 1640-1760. Oxford et al.: Oxford University Press, 2001.

Hofer, Achim: ‘Zur Erforschung und Spielpraxis von Märschen bis um 1750. In Militärmusik und „zivile“ Musik. Be­ziehungen und Einflüsse, edited by Armin Griebel and Horst Steinmetz, 41-54. Uffenheim: Forschungsstelle für fränkische Volksmusik, 1993).

Hofer, Achim: Studien zur Geschichte des Militärmarsches. 2 vols. Tutzing: Schneider, 1988.

Kirby, Percival: The Kettle-Drums: An Historical Survey. Music & Letters 9 (1929): 34-43.

Marten, Peter. C.: Die Musik der Spielleute des altpreussischen Heeres. Osnabrück: Biblio, 1976.

Möbius, Sascha: ”Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott” und “Das furchtbare Lärmen ihrer Trommeln”. Preußische Militärmusik in der Kultur des Kampfes in den Schlesischen Kriegen. In Mars und die Musen. Das Wechselspiel zwischen Militär und Gesellschaft in der frühen Neuzeit, eds. Jutta Nowosadtko and Matthias Rogg, 261-290. Münster: Lit Verlag, 2008.

Acknowledgements

Dr. Sascha Möbius for the list of suggested references