Baaden Infantry

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Hierarchical Path: Seven Years War (Main Page) >> Armies >> Palatine Army >> Baaden Infantry

Origin and History

This regiment was one of the eldest Palatine infantry regiment. It was raised in 1685 as the “Leibregiment” and his first Chef was Ernst Philipp von Aubach.

In 1706, Count Lecheraine (aka Lescheraine) became its proprietor. After the War of the Spanish Succession (1701-13), he was succeeded by Prince Joseph von Sulzbach. In the following years, the regiment had several successive proprietors:: Count Christian von Sulzbach, Friedrich von Kuhla, Baron Zobel, Franz Count von Efferen, Peter Heinrich von Cataneo and, since 1744, Salvator Marquis de Copons.

At the outbreak of the Seven Years' War, the regiment was not at full strength, totalling only some 1,000 men. It consisted of 2 battalions. Theoretically, each of these battalions should count 1 grenadier company (100 men) and 5 musketeer companies (each of 140 musketeers). The regimental artillery consisted of 1 gun per battalion, each served by 20 artillerymen detached from the Palatinate Artillery.

While campaigning, its grenadiers were usually formed into converged grenadier battalions.

During the Seven Years' War, the Chef of the regiment was:

  • from 1752 until June 29, 1778: Major-General Baron Reinhard von Baaden

During the Seven Years' War, its commanders were:

  • from 1754: Count von Harscamp
  • from 1759 until 1763: Count von Hoensbroech

Service during the War

1757

In 1757, the regiment was part of the 6,000 men strong Subsidienkorps (Palatine Auxiliary Corps) hired by France to serve in Germany. The regiment (now 1.448 men) marched from its quarters in Mannheim to the camp of the French army at Derendorf, where it arrived on April 25.

On July 6, the Palatinate Auxiliary Corps, which had advanced through Westphalia, joined the French Lower Rhine Army commanded by Maréchal d'Estrées at the camp at Bielefeld. Here the Palatine Corps was assigned to various French corps. The present regiment, along with Preysing Infantry was allocated to the corps of the Marquis de Contades.

On July 26, the regiment took part in the battle of Hastenbeck, where it supported the leading columns of the left wing. After the victory, it encamped at Grosselsen near Hameln with the main body of the French Lower Rhine Army from July 31 to August 2.

On September 28, when the cavalry of the Duc de Chevreuse went to Oschersleben to observe the movements of Prince Ferdinand's Allied troops, the Palatine Auxiliary Corps covered their advance.

On October 27, the Palatine Auxiliary Corps crossed the Weser River and marched by way of Lutterberg and Hameln to Hamm and Lippstadt, where the corps remained posted until December 8.

On December 18, the Palatine Auxiliary Corps arrived at Minden, where one battalion remained, while the seven other battalions continued their march towards Celle, where they arrived on December 24.

At the end of the year, the regiment took its winter-quarters in the town of Hoya, This position was in the fourth line of the French Army.

1758

On February 20, 1758, Louis Comte de Clermont evacuated Verden and marched with the army and the Palatine Auxiliary Corps to Hameln.

On March 30, the Palatine Corps needing some rest, and the present regiment was sent to Düsseldorf.

On June 8, Clermont evacuated Xanten and marched to Rheinberg. On June 13, when Clermont<s Army proceeded to Mörs, General Isselbach was left in Düsseldorf with 5 battalions (including the present regiment). He remained there during the Allied campaign on the west bank of the Lower Rhine.

On July 9, after the surrender of Düsseldorf, the present regiment rejoined the main army of the Comte de Clermont in Cologne. Soon afterwards, Lieutenant-General Marquis de Contades replaced Clermont as commander of the Army of the Lower Rhine.

On July 13, now reinforced by the Palatine infantry arriving from Düsseldorf, Contades marched from Cologne by way of Grevenbroich and Fliesteden to Gommershoven. However, after the ignominious capitulation of Düsseldorf, the French did not trust the Palatine troops, and the individual battalions were allocated to various corps. On July 17, the present regiment was assigned to Maréchal de Camp Christoph Georg Baron von der Osten, in the brigade of Brigadier Franz Peter Count von Harscamp.

On August 6, the French army, including the four Palatine auxiliary regiments (8 battalions) marched by way of Krefeld. On August 19, it crossed the Rhine and reached Recklinghausen on August 25. The present regiment was placed in the centre of the second line.

At the beginning of October, the regiment was attached to Chevert's Corps, which was sent to reinforce the army of the Prince de Soubise in Hesse.

On October 3, Chevert's Corps reached Nieder-Marsberg near Kassel, where it made a junction with Soubise's Army. On October 10, the present regiment was at the Battle of Lutterberg, where it was part of Chevert's Corps which won the day by turning the Allied left flank.

On October 12, Chevert's Corps marched to rejoin the main army. On October 17, it reached Büren and, on October 18, Arnsberg. On October 23, Chevert's vanguard reached Unna and Werl.

On November 13, where the French army left for its winter-quarters, the Palatine Corps marched by Unna, Dortmund and Wipperführt to its quarters, the present regiment took up its quarters in Düren.

1759

On January 1, 1759, French subsidies not being renewed because the Palatine troops had proven to be quite unwilling allies to the French, the regiment remained in Düren.

Uniform

Privates

Uniform in 1757 - Copyright Kronoskaf
Uniform in 1757
Headgear
Musketeer black tricorne laced yellow with blue within white pompoms
Grenadier
Baaden Infantry Grenadier Mitre Cap – Copyright Kronoskaf
Austrian style bearskin with brass shield and a red bag laced yellow with a yellow tassel
Neckstock black
Coat blue coat with 3 brass buttons under the lapels and 1 in the small of the back

N.B.: during summer, a linen smock was worn instead of the coat

Collar none
Shoulder Straps red with 1 brass button (left shoulder)
Lapels red, laced white with 7 brass buttons grouped 1,2,2,2
Pockets horizontal pockets, each with 3 brass buttons
Cuffs red, laced white with 3 brass buttons
Turnbacks red fastened with a small brass button
Waistcoat white with 15 brass buttons
Breeches white
Gaiters black with 22 brass buttons
Leather Equipment
Crossbelt paille (straw) or white
Waistbelt white
Cartridge Box black with 4 little yellow grenades, grenadiers wore an additional little cartridge box at their waistbelt, it was black with one yellow grenade
Bayonet Scabbard natural leather
Scabbard natural leather with brass fittings only at the beginning of war, later none
Footgear black shoes


Privates were armed with a musket, a bayonet and a curved sword.

NCOs

no information available yet

Officers

The officers wore the same uniform with the following exceptions:

  • scalloped tricorne with a black cockade and no pompoms
  • golden gorget (since 1755)
  • gold buttons and laces
  • white and blue striped sash (silver and blue for staff officers)
  • white and blue sword frog (silver and blue for staff officers)
  • buff gloves
  • black cane

Grenadier officers used a musket instead of a spontoon. Therefore, they wore a little cartouche (laced gold with a golden front plate) at the waistbelt.

Musicians

no information available yet

Colours

For more details on the various patterns of Palatine colours used during this period, please refer to our article on the Palatine Line Infantry Colours.

Warning: we are still working on the graphical representations of the colours and some details may change during the week of July 16 to 22.

Colours before 1760

Colonel flag (Leibfahne): white field; border consisting of with white and blue flames with golden decorations; centre device consisting of an image of the Madonna standing on a snake, surmounted by a red scroll carrying the motto “Sub Tuum Praesidium Virgo Gloriosa”; each corner monogram consisting of the crowned golden cypher of Karl IV Theodor and golden decorations.

Regimental flags (Kompaniefahnen): blue field decorated with golden floral patterns; centre device consisting of the golden cypher of Karl IV Theodor surmounted by a red and gold Electoral cap; each corner monogram consisting of the crowned golden cypher of Karl IV Theodor.

Leibfahne - Copyright: Kronoskaf
Kompaniefahne - Copyright: Kronoskaf

Colours from 1760

Each battalion carried 2 colours: the first battalion carried the Leibfahne and a 'Kompaniefahne, while the second battalion carried two 'Kompaniefahnen. A red and a yellow variants of the Kompaniefahne seem to have cohabitated.

Colonel flag (Leibfahne): white field; border consisting of with white and blue flames with golden decorations; centre device consisting of an image of the Madonna standing on a snake, surmounted by a red scroll carrying the motto “Sub Tuum Praesidium Virgo Gloriosa”; each corner monogram consisting of the crowned golden cypher of Karl IV Theodor and golden decorations.

Regimental flags (Kompaniefahnen)

  • red variant: red field bordered with a light blue and white lozenges pattern; centre device consisting of the crowned arms of the Elector of Palatinate within a rococo frame, flanked by a trophy of arms and a golden couchant lion, a collar of the Order of Saint Hubertus beneath, the whole resting on a white cloud the crowned golden cypher of Karl IV Theodor; each corner monogram consisting of the crowned golden cypher of Karl IV Theodor with a cross of Saint Hubertus beneath.
  • yellow variant: yellow field bordered by three rows of white and light blue lozenges; centre device consisting of the crowned arms of of Pfalz-Sulzbach within a rococo frame, flanked by a trophy of arms and a golden couchant lion, the Collar of the Order of St. Hubertus beneath, each corner monogram consisting of the crowned golden cypher of Karl IV Theodor with a cross of Saint Hubertus beneath.
Leibfahne - Copyright: Kronoskaf
Kompaniefahne (red variant) - Copyright: Kronoskaf
Kompaniefahne (yellow variant) - Copyright: Kronoskaf

References

Bezel, Oskar; Geschichte des Kurpfälzischen Heeres ..., Bayrisches Kriegsarchiv, München, 1925

Pengel, R.D. And G. R. Hurt; Bavaria, Saxony & the Palatinate Supplement: Uniforms and Flags of the Senen Years War, Hopewell: On Military Matters, 1981

Rogge, Christian; The French & Allied Armies in Germany during the Seven Years War, Frankfurt, 2006

N.B.: the section Service during the War is mostly derived from our articles depicting the various campaigns, battles and sieges.

Acknowledgments

rf-figuren for the initial version of this article.

Harald Skala for additional information on the origin and service of the regiment.