Hanoverian Sachsen-Gotha Infantry
Origin and History
The regiment was created in 1751 by the Duchess of Sachsen-Gotha with two companies of the “Grenadier-Garde” to which were added two new companies. The unit was known as the “’’Herzogin Bataillon’’” (Duchess’ Battalion) and was placed under the command of Colonel von Uechteritz.
In 1757, three companies from the “Erbprinz Friedrich Regiment” were added to the regiment which was organised as a Hanoverian battalion, although counting only seven companies; and renamed “Erbprinz von Sachsen-Gotha”. On April 15 of the same year, the regiment was taken into Hanoverian service under British pay as an auxiliary unit. However, it still belonged to the Duchy of Sachsen-Gotha.
On January 25, 1759, the regiment was fully integrated into the Hanoverian Army, keeping its name of “Sachsen-Gotha”. It received new uniforms, colours, drums and grenadier mitre caps similar to those of the other Hanoverian infantry regiments.
This regiment consisted of one battalion and counted 798 men. At the beginning of the war, it fought alongside the Hanoverian infantry regiments. Later on, it was mainly used as an escort for the artillery and pontoon trains.
During the Seven Years War the regimental inhabers were:
- since 1751: Luise Dorothea Duchess von Sachsen-Gotha-Altenburg
- from 1759: Sachsen-Gotha von Wurmb
During the Seven Years War the regimental commander were:
- from 1751: Colonel von Uechteritz
- from 1757: Colonel Heinrich Carl von Schott (died in Stade on November 12 1757)
- from 1757: Major Wilhelm Christoph Siegmund von Wurm (promoted to lieutenant-colonel in 1758; to colonel in 1759, to major-general in 1763; and to lieutenant-general in 1777)
In 1763, the regiment assumed garrison duty in Göttingen with three companies in Northeim and one company in Münden.
Service during the War
On April 18, 1757, the regiment, now under British pay, marched from Gotha to join the allied army. On May 1, it arrived at the camp near Hameln. On July 26, during the French invasion of Hanover, the regiment took part in the battle of Hastenbeck where it was deployed in the first line of the right wing under the command of Lieutenant-General Zastrow. At the end of November, it joined the allied army assembling near Celle for a counter-offensive in Hanover. It was detached to cover the bakery at Uelzen.
For the campaign of 1758, the regiment was allocated to a corps under the command of Lieutenant-General Imhof posted on the Rhine. On June 17, during the Allied offensive on the west bank of the Rhine, when Spörcken left his camp at Rheinberg, he left General Hardenberg at Büderich with this regiment and Stolzenberg Infantry). On August 5, the regiment fought in the combat of Mehr where it formed part of Imhoff's force who repulsed the French attempt directed against the Allied bridgehead at Rees. At the end of August, the regiment was sent to Warendorp to cover the magazines and bakery.In December, when the allied army took up its winter quarters in Westphalia, the regiment was quartered in Warendorp.
In March 1759, the regiment was allocated to Hardenberg’s Corps who marched to Hesse. At the beginning of April, the regiment was at Marburg but it soon rejoined the main army in Sauerland for the incoming campaign. In June, it was part of the main allied army under the command of the Duke Ferdinand of Brunswick. On August 1, the regiment took part in the Battle of Minden where it escorted the artillery of the 2nd column under Major Haase. In September, it was at the siege and capture of Marburg.
In 1760, the regiment campaigned with the main army but did not see action.
In February and March 1761, the regiment took part in the winter campaign in Hesse. In March, three companies of the regiment took part in the unsuccessful siege of Ziegenhain. On July 16, during the campaign in West Germany, the regiment took part in the Battle of Vellinghausen where it was deployed in the centre, in Howard's Corps to protect the artillery. On November 13, Ferdinand established his headquarters at Einbeck. The Allied army took its cantonments to the exception of a corps, including this regiment, placed under the command of Lieutenant-General Conway who took position along the Huve near Einbeck.
By May 23, 1762, the regiment was attached to the main allied army where it formed part of Colonel de la Chevallerie's Brigade. On June 24, during the campaign in West Germany, the regiment fought in the Battle of Wilhelmsthal where it formed part of the 6th column under Spörcken. On July 23, the regiment participated in the surprise attack on the Saxon Contingent which resulted in the combat of Lutterberg where it captured two guns. After the engagement, it formed part of Zastrow's force who covered the retreat of the Allied army. It then took part in the second siege of Ziegenhain which was interupted by peace negotiations.
|Coat||red with 2 pewter buttons and 2 white buttonholes under the lapels
|Waistcoat||white with 2 horizontal pockets, each with 3 pewter buttons|
Troopers were armed with a musket and a sword, and carried a dark brown haversack with a metal canteen on the left hip.
N.B.: before being incorporated into the Hanoverian army at the beginning of 1759, the regiment had a white uniform as illustrated here.
Officers had silver lace lining the cuffs and lapels, a black cockade hat, a gold gorget with the arms of Hanover in the centre and carried a yellow sash slung over the right shoulder. Sergeants wore straw gloves. Partizans were carried.
Drummers wore a red coat with swallows nest and lace in white.
The drum pattern had hoops in alternating dark green and red diagonal stripes, white drum cords over a brass drum with the Arms of Hanover in the centre.
Colonel Flag: White field bearing the arms of Hanover (common to all Hanoverian infantry regiments except 10-B).
Regimental Flag: Green field with lion passant bearing sword. The scroll above reads PRO FIDE REGE ET LEGE.
This article incorporates texts from the following books which are now in the public domain:
- Wissel, Friedrich v. and Georg von Wissel: Geschichte der Errichtung sämmtlicher Chur-Braunschweig-Lüneburgischen Truppen, sammt ihren Fahnen, Standarten und Pauken-Devisen ..., Zelle, 1786, pp. 617-621
Biles, Bill: The Hanoverian Army in the 18th Century, Seven Years War Association Journal Vol. VI No. 3
Gmundener Prachtwerk, circa 1761
Knötel, H. der Jung, and Hans M. Brauer: Uniformbogen Nr. 45, Berlin
Niemeyer, Joachim, and Georg Ortenburg: The Hanoverian Army during the Seven Years War
Pengel, R., and G. R. Hurt: German States in the Seven Years War 1740 to 1762, Imperial Press
Reitzenstein Sammlung, Bomann Museum, Celle
Rogge, Christian: The French & Allied Armies in Germany during the Seven Years War, Frankfurt, 2006
Tessin, Georg: Die Regimenter der europäischen Staaten im Ancién Regime des XVI. bis XVIII. Jahrhunderts. Part 1 Die Stammlisten, Osnabrück 1986
Vial J. L.: Nec Pluribus Impar