Kolowrat Infantry

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Hierarchical Path: Seven Years War (Main Page) >> Armies >> Austrian Army >> Kolowrat Infantry

Origin and History

In 1683, 9 companies were raised for General von Halbstadt. In 1694, these companies were formed into a regiment which was given to Carl Egom Reichsgraf (Imperial Count) von Fürstenberg-Möskirchen. At his death, on October 2 1702, he was succeeded by Carl Emanuel Fürst von Longueval; and in 1703 by Carl Alexander von Würtemberg-Stuttgart. Finally, in 1737, the regiment became the property of Cajetan Franz Xaverius Reichsgraf von Kollowrat Krakowski.

During the War of the Quadruple Alliance, in 1719, the regiment served in Sicily where it fought in the battle of Francavilla (June 20).

During the War of the Polish Succession, in 1734, the regiment served on the Rhine. In 1738, it campaigned in Hungary.

During the War of the Austrian Succession, the regiment served in several campaigns. On April 10 1741, it took part in the battle of Mollwitz. On June 4 1745, it was at the battle of Hohenfriedberg where it held its post till the end of the engagement, suffering heavy casualties. On September 30 of the same year, it fought in the battle of Soor.

As per the Etat nouveau des Troupes de sa Majesté Impériale Royale comme elles se trouvent effectivement l'an 1759 and Etat général des Troupes qui servent sa Majesté Impériale et Royale Apostolique sur pié en 1760, the regiment counted 4 battalions (2 grenadier coys and 16 fusilier coys) for a total of 2,300 men. This was the administrative organisation of the regiment. However, the tactical organisation differed: 2 field fusilier battalions, each of 6 companies; 2 grenadier companies (usually converged with grenadiers from other battalions into an ad hoc unit); and 1 garrison battalion of 4 companies (see Austrian Line Infantry Organisation for more details).

During the Seven Years' War, the chef of the regiment was:

  • since 1737 till 1773: Cajetan Franz Xaverius Reichsgraf von Kollowrat Krakowski

During the Seven Years' War, its colonel-commander was:

  • 1759: Colonel von Auloch
  • 1760: Baron von Rasp
  • 1762: Friedrich von Steinbach

Regimental numbers were introduced only in 1769 when this regiment was designated as "I.R. 17".

Service during the War

On October 1 1756, the regiment took part in the battle of Lobositz where it was deployed in the second line of the centre under General C. Kollowrat in the brigade of Major-general Krottendorf.

On May 6 1757, during the Prussian invasion of Bohemia, two battalions of the regiment took part in the battle of Prague where they were deployed in Count Peroni's brigade, in the second line of the left wing of infantry under Baron Kheul. On November 22, two battalions of the regiment took part in the battle of Breslau where they were deployed in Kinsky's brigade, in the second line of the infantry centre under Baron Kheul. On December 5 at the battle of Leuthen, two battalions of the regiment were deployed in Starhemberg's division in the second line of the infantry right wing under Kheul.

By August 2 1758, one battalion of the regiment served in the first line of the main Austrian army under the command of Daun near Jarmeritz. Daun was following up the Prussian army retiring through Bohemia after the failure of the Prussian invasion of Moravia. On October 10, one battalion of the regiment took part in the battle of Hochkirch where it was deployed in Loudon's corps, to the southwest of Hochkirch.

By mid August 1759, the regiment was part of Buccow's corps posted in Lusatia. On September 2, it took part in the combat of Sorau.

On November 3 1760, the regiment fought in the battle of Torgau where it was deployed in the first line of the infantry centre in Sincere's division.

On October 1 1761, one battalion of the regiment took part in the storming of Schweidnitz where it was attached to the fourth column under Lieutenant-colonel Baron de Vins

To do: more details on the campaigns from 1760 to 1762

Uniform

For the moment we have very few information on the uniform in 1756, at the outbreak of the war. Most of our references describe the uniform in 1762. However, Muhsfeldt and Schirmer mention that, in 1756-57, the coat was white lined poppy red (therefore poppy red turnbacks), the distinctive colour was poppy red and the waistcoat and breeches were poppy red.

Privates

Uniform in 1762 - Source: Kronoskaf
Uniform in 1762
as per the Bautzener Handschrift

completed with other sources where necessary
Headgear
Musketeer black tricorne laced white with a white fastener and a small yellow button on the left side; yellow within red within yellow rosette; yellow within red within yellow pompoms in the lateral cornes
Grenadier bearskin with a poppy red bag probably laced white and a white tassel
Neckstock one red and one black (for parades the regimental commanders agreed before on the colour of the neckstocks)
Coat white lined white with 3 yellow buttons under the right lapel and 1 yellow button in the small of the back on each side
Collar none
Shoulder Straps poppy red with a white central stripe fastened by a yellow button (left shoulder only)
Lapels poppy red with 7 yellow buttons (1-3-3)
Pockets horizontal pockets, each with 3 yellow buttons
Cuffs poppy red with 3 yellow buttons
Turnbacks white attached with a poppy red fastener edged white and 2 small yellow buttons
Waistcoat white with 2 rows of small yellow buttons (3-3-3) and with horizontal pockets, each with 3 yellow buttons
Breeches white
Gaiters one pair of black (for winter) and one pair of white gaiters (for summer and parade)
Leather Equipment
Crossbelt white
Waistbelt white with a brass buckle
Cartridge Box black with a small brass plate carrying the initials “MT”
Bayonet Scabbard black with brass fittings
Scabbard black (grenadiers only)
Footgear black shoes


Troopers were armed with a musket (Model 1745 for fusiliers, Model 1754 for grenadiers). Grenadiers carried a sabre while fusiliers carried only a bayonet.

NCOs

Corporal of Kolowrat Infantry in 1762 - Copyright: Franco Saudelli


Officers

The officers wore the same uniform as the privates with the following exceptions:

  • tricorne laced gold with a white and green cockade
  • black neckstock
  • no turnbacks
  • yellow and black silk sash

Senior officers carried sticks identifying their rank:

  • lieutenant: bamboo stick without knob
  • captain: long rush stick with a bone knob
  • major: long rush stick with a silver knob and a small silver chain
  • lieutenant-colonel: long rush stick with a larger silver knob without chain
  • colonel: long rush stick with a golden knob

Sergeants carried a halberd and a wooden stick.

Corporals carried a halberd.

Musicians

As per a regulation of 1755, musicians were now distinguished from troopers only by poppy red swallow nests on the shoulders.

The drum had a brass barrel decorated with black flames at the bottom and with a black double headed Eagle on a yellow field. Rims were decorated with red and white diagonal stripes. The bandolier was white.

Colours

All German infantry regiments carried identical colours: a white Leibfahne (colonel) and yellow Regimentsfahne. The hand painted colours were made of silk and measured Size 178 cm x 127 cm. The 260 cm long flagpoles had golden finial and were decorated with black and yellow spirals of cloth.

The colonel colour was carried by the first battalion.

Colonel flag (Leibfahne):

  • field: white
  • border: alternating white and yellow outer waved triangles pointing inwards, red and black inner waved triangles pointing outwards
  • obverse (right): the Immaculate Mother of God (which had been declared the patroness of the army by kaiser Ferdinand III) on a cloud, crushing a snake under her foot and surrounded by rays
  • reverse (left): crowned and armed Imperial double-eagle with the "Lothringen-Toscanian" arms on a shield and the initials of the Emperor CF (Corregens Franciscus) on the left wing and IM (Imperator Magnus) on the right
Leibfahne – Source: PMPDel

Regimental flags (Regimentsfahne):

  • field: yellow
  • border: alternating white and yellow outer waved triangles pointing inwards, red and black inner waved triangles pointing outwards
  • obverse (right): crowned and armed Imperial double-eagle with the "Lothringen-Toscanian" arms on a shield and the initials of the Emperor CF (Corregens Franciscus) on the left wing and IM (Imperator Magnus) on the right
  • reverse (left): unarmed and crowned Imperial double-eagle with the arms of Hungaria and Bohemia on a shield and the initials M on the left wing and T on the right
Regimentsfahne – Source: PMPDel

In fact, the situation on the field was slightly more complex than this, since colours were usually replaced only when worn out. It is fairly possible that some regiment who had been issued colours of the 1743 pattern were still carrying them at the beginning of the Seven Years' War. For more details, see Austrian Line Infantry Colours.

References

This article contains texts from the following sources, which are now in the public domain:

  • Seyfart, Kurzgefaßte Geschichte aller kaiserlich-königlichen Regimenter zu Pferde und zu Fuß, Frankfurth and Leipzig, 1762, pp. 13-14

Other sources

Dihm, Dr. Hermann; Oesterreichische Standarten und Fahnen zur Zeit des 7 jährigen Krieges, Die Zinnfigur, Klio

Donath, Rudolf; Die Kaiserliche und Kaiserlich-Königliche Österreichische Armee 1618-1918, 2. Aufl., Simbach/Inn 1979

Etat nouveau des Troupes de sa Majesté Impériale Royale comme elles se trouvent effectivement l'an 1759

Etat général des Troupes qui servent sa Majesté Impériale et Royale Apostolique sur pié en 1760

Funcken, Liliane and Fred, Les uniformes de la guerre en dentelle

Hausmann, Friedrich, Die Feldzeichen der Truppen Maria Theresias, Schriften des Heeresgeschichtlichen Museums, vol. 3, Vienna: 1967

Knötel, Herbert d.J.; Brauer, Hans M.: Heer und Tradition / Heeres-Uniformbogen (so-called “Brauer-Bogen”), Berlin 1926-1962, Österreich-Ungarn – 1756-63

Muhsfeldt, Th.; Abzeichenfarben der K. und K. Regimenter zu Fuss im Jahre 1757 und früher, in Mitteilungen zur Geschichte des militärischen Tracht, No. 12, 1904

Schirmer, Friedrich, Die Heere der kriegführenden Staaten 1756-1763, hrsg. von der KLIO-Landesgruppe Baden-Württemberg, überarb. u. aktual. Neuauflage 1989

Seidel, Paul; Nochmals österreichische Standarten und Fahnen zur Zeit des 7 jährigen Krieges, Die Zinnfigur, Clio

Thümmler, L.-H., Die Österreichiches Armee im Siebenjährigen Krieg: Die Bautzener Bilderhandschrift aus dem Jahre 1762, Berlin 1993

N.B.: the section Service during the War is mostly derived from our articles depicting the various campaigns, battles and sieges.

Acknowledgments

User:Zahn for gathering most of the information about this regiment

Dr. Marco Pagan and Franco Saudelli for the plates