|Language(s)||Dutch, Zeelandic, West Flemish, Dutch Low Saxon, Frisian languages|
|Population||Approximately 2,000,000 inhabitants (aside from colonies)|
|Annual Revenues||about £2,500,000 (normalized in British pounds to allow comparison)|
|Rulers||1672-1702: Stadtholder William III of Orange|
1702-1720: Grand Pensionary Anthonie Heinsius
|Army||On the eve of the War of the Spanish Succession, the Dutch Republic fielded the second most important army in Western Europe. For more details see the article on the Dutch Army|
|Navy||At the end of the 17th century, the naval power of the Dutch Republic was in decline. Nevertheless, the republic could still count on a powerful navy.
For a comprehensive list of the warships of this navy, see the article Dutch Navy
|Trade||By 1715, the Dutch merchant fleet was still the largest in the world. For its part, the Dutch East India Company was the largest and most active charter company in international trade. The state guaranteed a monopoly to this company for all trade with the East Indies. However, the Dutch East India Company was unable to maintain a monopoly on trade with the Western Coasts of Africa and with America.
As soon as 1680, some 200 vessels and 14,000 sailors were involved in whale hunting and in the production of whale oil. An industry mainly centred around their establishments of the Spitsbergen Island.
Like most colonial power, the Dutch Republic had imposed a monopoly of trade to its colonies. Thus:
In Europe, thanks to its domination of the Moluccas, the Dutch East India Company was the main reseller of spices (mainly nutmeg, mace, cloves). It had even restricted certain cultures to specific islands. Thus, nutmeg was produced exclusively in the Banda Islands; cloves, in Ambon Island; etc.
Furthermore, the Dutch East India Company obtained
The Dutch also imported timber, pitch, fish oil, coarse canvas, hemp and suet from Russia. They also acted as intermediary in the commerce of cereals exported from Poland to various European countries.
The Dutch exported wine, brandy, salt, cheese, dyeing, fruits, tobacco and spices to Scandinavia and imported Swedish copper.
Abtheilung für Kriegsgeschichte des k. k. Kriegs-Archives: Feldzüge des Prinzen Eugen von Savoyen, Series 1, Vol. 1, Vienna 1876, pp. 101-102
Anon.: The History of Modern Europe, Part II, London: 1784, pp. 300-301
McEvedy, Colin: The Penguin Atlas of Modern History (to 1815), Harmondsorth: Penguin Books, 1972, pp. 54-61
Scherer, Herman: Histoire du commerce de toutes les nations depuis les temps ancies jusqu'à nos jours, Vol. 2 – Temps Modernes; Paris: Capelle, 1857, pp. 72-73, 120, 256-332