Plüschau Infantry

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Hierarchical Path: War of the Spanish Succession (Main Page) >> Armies >> Austrian Army >> Plüschau Infantry

Origin and History

In 1709, Emperor Joseph I decided to raise two new infantry regiments. OFWM Engelhard von Plischau (sometime written “Plüschau”) was appointed proprietor of one of these regiments. On 13 February 1709, he received the relevant decree (the other regiment, the future I.R. 29, was created by GFWM Prince Albert von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel). The recruits were raised in Bavaria, around Ingolstadt, in addition, Plischau received two companies from Wetzel Infantry , one from Wendt Infantry and two from Du Saix d’Arnant Infantry as cadre. The regiment was supposed to count twelve fusilier companies and one grenadier company, for a total of 1,600 men. Otto Count Hohenfeld (from Kriechbaum Infantry) was appointed lieutenant-colonel; and Johann Franz von Leeuven (written also “Löwen” from Sickingen Infantry), major (OWM). The grenadiers and four fusilier companies were reviewed in Straubing, four fusilier companies in Landshut and four in Ingolstadt.

During the War of the Spanish Succession, the proprietors of the regiment were:

  • from 1709 until 1717: Georg Jacob Baron von Plüschau (killed on 27 September 1717 in a battle against the Turks near Novi, present-day Novi Grad/Bosnia)

Regimental numbers were introduced only in 1769 when this regiment was designated as "I.R. 22."

Service during the War

From its creation in 1709 to 1713, the regiment garrisoned various places in Bavaria and Philippsburg.

In May 1713, the regiment (two battalions) joined Prince Eugène’s army which was concentrated near Ettlingen. It was allocated to Vaubonne’s Corps and marched to Freiburg. Part of the regiment garrisoned Freiburg, and the other part was posted in the nearby entrenchments of Rosskopf. Meanwhile, the third battalion garrisoned Konstanz.

At that time, Plüschau, the proprietor of the regiment, was in Landau. After the surrender of the fortress, he was taken prisoners and was freed only in October.

On 20 September, the French Maréchal Villars attacked the entrenchments of Rosskopf, and the Wachentdonk Brigade (including 2 battalions and the grenadiers of the present regiment) reinforced Freiburg. The garrison had now 9,300 foot (16 battalions) and 100 dragoons under the command of FML Baron von Harsch.

On 30 September, Villars opened the trench before Freiburg.

On 14 October, the French attacked a lunette defended by 200 men (Major Baron Rehting from the Salzburg contingent (?) and Captain Count Klenau with the grenadiers of present regiment). The heavy fight lasted till midnight. The French Poitou Infanterie and Royal Roussillon Infanterie led by generals Broglio, Nangis, Sully, Cantades, Duc de Richelieu and Duc de Guiche entered the lunette, but lost 135 officers and 1.800 men dead. From the defenders only Lieutenant Malzan from Du Saix d’Arnant Infantry and 6 grenadiers survived.

On 1 November, FML Baron Harsch evacuated the destroyed city and took refuge in the lower castle with 1,500 men. On 20 November, Harsch surrendered and the garrison left Freiburg “with military honour.”

On 6 March 1714, the Treaty of Rastatt put an end to the long war and the regiment was sent to garrison Philippsburg.

Uniform

Privates

Uniform in 1709 - Copyright: Richard Couture
Uniform Details as per
Donath and Czegka
Headgear
Fusilier black tricorne laced white; as field sign, green foliage was attached to the tricorne in summer and a wisp of straw in winter

N.B.: to distinguish soldiers (from corporal down to privates) of each company, a button or rosette at the colour of the company was attached to the tricorne.

Grenadier bearskin edged with a white braid; yellow hanging bag edged with a white braid in a zig-zag pattern
Neck stock white
Coat pearl grey with yellow buttons on the right side and 1 yellow button on each side in the small of the back
Collar none
Shoulder Straps none
Lapels none
Pockets horizontal pockets, each with 3 yellow buttons
Cuffs yellow, each with 3 yellow buttons
Turnbacks none
Waistcoat pearl grey with yellow buttons
Breeches pearl grey
Stockings white fastened under the knee with a natural leather strap
Gaiters made of canvas and used only when the soldier wore linen breeches; in this case, the stockings were replaced by linen socks; the use of gaiters generalized much later
Leather Equipment
Crossbelt natural leather
Waistbelt a yellow deer or buffalo leather waist-belt worn above the waistcoat
Cartridge Pouch red or black leather pouch containing 24 cartridges, a pewter oil flask, two needles attached to a small chain (to clean the touch-hole of the lock), a tube that held the match for lighting the fuse of grenades, with a wooden peg on a small chain and a roll of fuse. The cartridge box had two cover flaps. The top one was sometimes decorated with a metal badge bearing the cipher or the arms of the Inhaber.

Grenadiers carried two cartridge pouches. The first one, slightly larger than that of fusiliers, was worn on wide cross-belt and contained grenades and a pewter tube that held the match for lighting the fuse of grenades; the smaller second pouch was attached to the waist-belt and contained cartridges for the musket.

Bayonet Scabbard black leather
Scabbard none
Footwear Russia leather shoes


Armaments consisted of a musket and a bayonet. Grenadiers were also armed with hand grenades.

Other interpretations

According to Czegka, by 1714, the distinctive colour of the regiment had been changed from yellow to red.

According to Kühn and Hall, the distinctive colour of the regiment was red in 1709 and yellow in 1716.

NCOs

NCOs carried a spontoon (half-pike). They were also armed with a Stossdegen (a long two-edged estoc or rapier) carried in a black leather scabbard attached to the waist-belt.

NCOs of grenadier companies carried a flintlock musket instead of the spontoon.

NCOs also carried a cane whose characteristics indicated their precise rank. This cane had the length of a walking stick and was carried in and out of service. In action, to free hands, the cane was hanged to a button of the coat. Grenadier sergeants and fouriers were distinguished from privates by three silver braids on the bag of their bearskin.

Officers

Uniforms of officers were always of finer cloth than those of the privates.

Officers wore a black and yellow silk sash across the chest or around the waist.

Lieutenants of the grenadier companies were distinguished from privates and NCOs by four golden braids on the bag of their bearskin; captains by five golden braids on their bearskin.

Officers carried a partisan. The partisan was decorated with a tassel: gold for the colonel, gold with silver fringe for the lieutenant-colonel, gold and silken fringe for captains and silken fringe for lieutenants. In some regiments, the captains' tassel was entirely of silk; in this case the lieutenants' partisan had no tassel. The partisans of staff officers had gilt butt caps.

Officers were also armed with a Stossdegen (a long two-edged estoc or rapier) carried in a black leather scabbard attached to the waist-belt.

Officers carried a cane whose characteristics indicated their precise rank. This cane had the length of a walking stick and was carried in and out of service. In action, to free hands, the cane was hanged to a button of the coat.

Officers of grenadier companies carried a flintlock musket instead of the partisan. Captains, lieutenants and sergeants of these companies always had their bayonet affixed to their musket.

In the field, officers carried a pair of pistols.

Musicians

In the Austrian Army of the time, musicians often wore uniforms in reverse colours with the distinctive colour of the regiment used for the coat.

The drum belt was usually brown and worn on the right shoulder.

Colours

no information found

References

Abtheilung für Kriegsgeschichte des k. k. Kriegs-Archives: Feldzüge des Prinzen Eugen von Savoyen, Series 1, Vol. 1, Vienna 1875, pp. 212-218, 222-227

Czegka, Eduard: Uniformen der kaiserlichen Infanterie unter Prinz Eugen. in: Zeitschrift für Heereskunde 49-51, 1933, pp. 459-473

Donath, Rudolf: Die Kaiserliche und Kaiserlich-Königliche Österreichische Armee 1618-1918, 2. Aufl., Simbach/Inn 1979

Faust, F.: Geschichte des k. k. Infanterie-Regiments von Plüschau, Vienna 1841

Gräffer, August: Geschichte der kaiserl. Königl. Regimenter, Corps, Bataillons und anderer Militär-Branchen seit ihrer Errichtung biz zu Ende des Feldzuges 1799, Vol. 1, Vienna, 1804, pp. 94-98

Hubka, Gustav Ritter, Geschichte des k. und k. Infanterie-Regimentes Graf von Lacy Nr. 22, Zara, 1902

Seyfart, Kurzgefaßte Geschichte aller kaiserlich-königlichen Regimenter zu Pferde und zu Fuß, Frankfurth and Leipzig, 1762, p. 27

Acknowledgement

Harald Skala for the translation and integration of Hubka's and Faust’s works