Viscount Shannon's Marines
Origin and History
The military soon realised the advantage of having troops trained to the use of arms on board of ships, as well as on land.
In November 1664, on the eve of the Second Anglo-Dutch War (1665-67), King Charles II created a corps specifically for sea-service. This corps was commanded by the Duke of York (the future King James II), then Lord High Admiral of Great Britain, and was designated “The Admiral’s Maritime Regiment.” This was followed in June 1665 by the formation of The Holland Regiment, Both regiments were on the Navy Establishment, and served with the fleet during the Second Anglo-Dutch War. In May 1667, both regiments were transferred to the establishment of the Guards and Garrisons. Detachments from the existing regiments of foot guards were detailed for sea service as well.
In 1672, at the outbreak of the Third Anglo-Dutch War (1672-74), a number of regiments were raised for service with the fleet. Furthermore, battalions for sea-service were also formed by drafts from the land-forces. Several companies of the Foot Guards were employed on the Marine duty. On 7 June, these companies took part in the Battle of Solebay against the Dutch fleet. They were also engaged in several other actions during the war. Nevertheless, all these regiments, battalions and companies remained part of the land forces.
In 1689, King William III incorporated “the Admiral’s Regiment” (which was then considered the third regiment of infantry) in the 2nd Coldstream Regiment of Foot Guards. In January 1690, two Marine regiments were added to the Navy Establishment for service on board the fleet.
In July 1698, a new establishment of the marine forces was ordered. There were four regiments in this new establishment: one was formed from the original two regiments raised in 1690, and three regiments were formed by the reassignment of three regiments of foot. In May 1699, these four regiments were all disbanded.
In February 1702, during the War of the Spanish Succession (1701-13), the British Parliament enabled Queen Anne to increase the efficiency of her navy, by forming a Corps of Marines, which could act at sea as well as on land. On 1 June, six regiments, including the present regiment, were accordingly added to the regular Army as a Marine Corps. Each of these regiments comprised twelve companies of 59 men each. In addition, six regular regiments of infantry were appointed for Sea-service. Colonel William Seymour was nominated to superintend the Marine forces and promoted to brigadier-general.
The present regiment was raised on 12 February 1702 in Sussex and the adjacent counties. It was known as the "Viscount Shannon’s Regiment of Marines" and was ranked as 4th marines. It was also known as the "Prince George of Denmark’s Regiment of Marines". It consisted of 40 officers and 793 other ranks, organised in twelve companies, more precisely:
- Colonel Richard Boyle, Viscount Shannon
- 1 lieutenant-colonel
- 1 major
- 1 surgeon
- 1 surgeon’s mate
- 12 companies, each of:
- 1 captain
- 1 first lieutenant
- 1 second lieutenant
- 2 sergeants (an additional sergeant for the grenadier company)
- 3 corporals
- 2 drummers
- 59 private soldiers
On 25 December 1703, each company of marines was increased to 100 men. Thus, the six marine regiments numbered a total of 8,166 officers and men.
During the War of the Spanish Succession, the successive proprietors of the regiment were:
- from 12 February 1702 to January 1714: Richard Boyle, Viscount Shannon
The regiment was disbanded at Rochester in December 1713 and January 1714.
Service during the War
N. B.: throughout the war, marines served on board the fleet in detachments regardless of the regimental structure. For example, the naval force under Admiral Sir George Rooke that took Gibraltar in August 1704 carried about 2,200 marines from all six regiments. Likewise, the battalions of marines, which took part of the expeditions to Port Royal in 1710 and Quebec in 1711, were formed from all six regiments as well.
In July 1702, the entire regiment was part of the Anglo-Dutch expedition against Cádiz. The expeditionary force rapidly made itself master of Rota (July 27) and Fort Santa Catalina (August 2). However, it was soon forced to re-embark (August 25-28). On its way back to England, the fleet surprised a French fleet at the the Battle of Vigo Bay on October 23 and an amphibious operation allowed the British to capture the entire French squadron.
In December 1703, the regiment lost two companies in the "Great Storm."
In February 1704, a detachment of the regiment proceeded, under Admiral Sir George Rooke, to Lisbon, from whence it proceeded to Barcelona. On 19 May, the troops were landed at Barcelona under the command of the Prince von Hessen-Darmstadt. However, the force was insufficient to capture the place and were re-embarked on 20 May. The fleet next proceeded to attack the Fortress of Gibraltar. On the afternoon of 21 July, the Prince von Hessen-Darmstadt effected a landing with 1,800 British and Dutch Marines. After a bombardment of three days, the governor was forced to capitulate. On the evening of 24 July, the Allies took possession of the fortress. In October an Franco-Spanish force besieged the Fortress of Gibraltar. The detachment then took part in the defence of the place during this siege which lasted for seven months. After selecting a sufficient force to garrison Gibraltar, the Marine Corps were distributed in the several ships of war which were then collected in the Tagus, to cooperate with the land forces on the coast of Spain.
In 1705 and 1706, detachments of the regiment continued to serve in Spain, at Gibraltar, Lerida and Barcelona.
At the end of 1708, the detachment operating in Spain was probably drafted in other British regiments.
In 1710, a detachment of the regiment formed part of the Marine Battalion of 400 men, which took part in the capture of Port Royal in Acadia.
In 1711, a detachment of the regiment formed part of the Marine Battalion of 600 men, which took part in the unsuccessful expedition against Québec.
There were still no regulation concerning uniforms and colonels were responsible for the clothing of their soldiers. Therefore, there were wide variations from one regiment to another.
Hairs were worn long in a “long bob”. They were sometimes tied at the back of the neck. The hair bag was also already in use.
Men as well as officers were clean-shaven. Officers sometimes wore small moustaches.
|Neck stock||knotted white linen neck-cloth with ends hanging or tucked into the top of the coat|
|Coat||scarlet frock-coat with lining of an unknown colour with pewter buttons along the full length of the right side and 1 pewter button on each side in the small of the back
N.B.: the coats of grenadiers had white tufted laced loops ornamenting the buttonholes down to the waist
For the uniform of 1702, Lawson mentions a red watermen’s coat
|Waistcoat||long red waistcoat with pewter buttons|
|Stockings||during campaigns, a first pair of finer stockings was pulled up under the breeches at the knees while a coarser pair of white stockings was worn over them, pulled over the knees and fastened with a leather strap and buckle|
Musketeers were armed with a musket without sling, a bayonet and a sword. Grenadiers were armed with a firelock with a sling, a hatchet, a bayonet and grenades.
NCOs wore uniforms almost identical to those of privates with the following differences:
- tricorne laced silver
- silver braids on the seams of the coat
Sergeants initially carried a halberd and corporals a musket. Gradually, all NCOs were equipped with musket.
Officers wore beaver tricornes laced gold (probably reserved to superior officers) or silver (probably reserved to subaltern officers). They also wore the fashionable full flowing curled wigs. On service they usually plaited their wig.
A large gorget was worn around the neck tied with ribbons. The gorget was gilt for captains, black studded with gold for lieutenants and silver for ensigns.
Officers usually wore uniforms somewhat similar to those of privates (even though there were not yet any regulation compelling them to do so), made of finer material. Their coats were decorated with gold or silver braids down the seams and on the sleeves; and with gold or silver embroidered buttonholes. Cuffs were usually of the same colour as the coat instead of the distinctive colour of the regiment.
The waistcoats of officers were often decorated with gold or silver fringes.
A crimson sash (often interwoven with gold or silver and fringed similarly) was worn around the waist.
Breeches were tied with rosettes below the knee.
Officers wore gloves, often decorated with gold or silver fringes.
Officers carried a sword and a half pike or a spontoon.
The cartouche box of officers were often covered in velvet and decorated with gold or silver embroideries.
Drummers and oboeists usually wore coat of the facing colour of the regiment, decorated with lace on the seams of sleeves and back and on the buttonholes. Their coat was decorated with the crowned King's cypher or the Colonel's crest embroidered on the breast and back. Sometimes their coat had hanging sleeves.
no information found
Lawson, Cecil C. P.: A History of the Uniforms of the British Army, Vol. 1 From the beginning to 1760, London: Kaye & Ward, pp. 55-56
Wienand Drenth for additional information on the lineage and history of the regiment